Etnoekologi dan Pengelolaan Agroekosistem oleh Penduduk Desa Karangwangi Kecamatan Cidaun, Cianjur Selatan Jawa Barat

Johan Iskandar, Budiawati SUpangkat Iskandar

Abstract


Abstrak. Sejatinya di masa silam, penduduk pedesaan di Jawa Barat, termasuk penduduk di Desa Karangwangi, Kecamatan Cidaun, Kabupaten Cianjur, Jawa Barat dominan menggarap sistem ladang (sistem huma). Namun, sejalan dengan kian padatnya penduduk, makin berkurangnya kawasan hutan, dan berkembangnya ekonomi pasar di pedesaan, maka, sistem huma berubah menjadi beberapa tipe sistem agroforestri tradisional, seperti kebon kayu-kayuan (kebon kai), kebon campuran kayu-kayuan dan buah-buahan (talun) dan sistem pekarangan (buruan). Selain itu, dengan adanya program Revolusi Hijau pada sistem sawah dan introduksi albasiah/jengjen (Paraserinthes falcataria (L) I Nielsen) pada sistem tegalan dan agroforestri tradisional, seperti kebon kai. Konsekuensinya,  sistem sawah dan sistem huma mengalami perubahan secara drastis. Paper ini mendisuksikan tentang perkembangan beberapa tipe agroekosistem dari sistem huma, dengan berbagai perubahannya. Metoda penelitian menggunakan kualitatif dengan pendekatan etnoekologi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa hasil studi telah memberikan berbagai informasi untuk lebih memahami perilaku penduduk pedesaan dalam mengelola berbagai tipe agroekosistem di desanya. Dalam kaitannya dengan pembangunan, seyogianya berbagai pengetahuan ekologi lokal penduduk yang positif dan kearifan ekologi penduduk tidak diabaikan atau bahkan dicoba untuk dimusnahkan, namun dapat diintegrasikan dengan pengetahuan ilmiah barat untuk dapat digunakan untuk pembangunan sistem pertanian di Indonesia yang berkelanjutan. 

Kata kunci: sistem huma, agroforestri tradisional, agroekosistem, revolusi hijau.

 

Abstract. Originally in the past, village people of West Java, including people of Village of Karangwangi, Sub-district of Cidaun, District of Cianjur and Province of West Java predominated practicing the swidden farming system (sistem huma). However, due to increasing human population density, decreasing the forest area, and rapid development of market economy in the village, the  huma system have changed to  several types of the traditional agroforestry systems, such as the tree garden system (kebon kai), mixed-garden system of wood and fruits (talun), and home garden (buruan). In addition, because of introduction of the green revolution in the sawah systems and the introduction of albasiah/jengjen (Paraserianthes falcataria (L) I Nielsen) in the traditional agroforestry systems, such as kebon kai. As a result, those agroecosystem types have dramatically changed.  This paper discusses the development of the traditional agroforestry systems which is developed from the huma system. Method used in this study qualitative with the ethnoecology approach. The resulted of study show that it has provided rich information which is very useful to more understand the village people behavior in managing various type of agroecosystem in their village. With regard to development process, we suggest various positive  local knowledges and ecological wisdoms, rather than ignoring or attempting to replace them, it may be useful to be integrated with the scientific knowledge to use in supporting the sustainable agriculture in Indonesia.


Keywords: swidden system, agroforestry traditional, agroecosystem, green revolution


Keywords


sistem huma., agroforestri tradisional., agroekosistem., revolusi hijau.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.15575/biodjati.v1i1.1035

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