Pesantren Responses to Religious Tolerance, Pluralism and Democracy in Indonesia

Nurrohman Nurrohman

Abstract


Pesantren (Islamic boarding school) is the oldest Islamic institution in Indonesia that often affiliated to the largest mass Muslim organization Nahdlatul Ulama. This organization is well known for its stance to uphold moderate, tolerance Islam and accepting pluralistic state based on Pancasila. Pesantren also often referred as the barometer to understand the way of thinking of Muslims grass root in Indonesia because many Islamic figures in Indonesian village are alumni of pesantren. 

There are debates among scholars on whether religious violence has a root in religious doctrine or it is caused by factors outside religion such as poverty or injustice. By assuming that both inside and outside factors have significant contribution to violence or radicalism this study will discuss the doctrine that potentially can be used to justify violence and intolerance by reviewing the opinion of pesantren leaders in West Java on jihad, violence or intolerance and power. This study is aimed to examine whether the commitment of Muslim leaders in national level on democracy and plurality is supported by grass root particularly from pesantren leaders. 

Overall the study found that although they agree that democracy is compatible with Islam, this study reveals that their acceptance to pluralism still be questioned as evidenced by almost half of them supported theocratic caliphate carry out by radical group.

Although many argued that pesantren promotes tolerance and pluralism, nevertheless this  study shows that some of their teaching tacitly supported violence act in the name of religion that will tarnished the effort of Indonesia to synchronize Islam, democracy and modernity. It means that many of them actually not wholeheartedly accepted democracy and pluralism.


Keywords


radical Islam; Islamic state; democracy

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abas, Nasir. (2006). Membongkar Jamaah Islamiyah: Pengakuan mantan Anggota. Jakarta: Grafindo.

An-Na’im, Abdullahi Ahmed. (1990). Toward an Islamic Reformation: Civil Liberties, Human Rights, and International Law, Syracuse, Syracuse University Press.

Azra, Azyumardi. (1-4 November 2010). Cultural Pluralism in Indonesia: Continuous Reinventing of Indonesian Islam in Local, National and Global Contexts. Islamic Studies Banjarmasin.

Constitutional Court Verdict. (12 Agustus 2008). No. 19/PUU-VI/ 2008.

Dijk, C.Van. (1987). Rebellion Under Banner of Islam (The Darul Islam in Indonesia) translated Darul Islam: Sebuah Pemberontakan. Jakarta: Grafitipers.

Eksekusi Rajam Untuk Penzina di Ambon. http://www.oocities.com/arumbaikole/gatra040501.htm?20104.

Gatra No. 24. (30 April 2001). http://www.oocities.com/arumbaikole/gatra040501.htm?20104.

Khan,Qamaruddin. (1987). Political Concepts in The Qur’an, translated to Tentang Teori Politik Islam, Bandung: Pustaka.

Lev,Daniel S. (1990). Hukum dan Politik di Indonesia: Kesinambungan dan Perubahan (Law and Politics in Indonesia: Continuity and Change). Jakarta: LP3ES.

Mahmood, Tahir. (1987). Personal Law in Islamic Countries: History, Texts and Comparative Analysis. New Delhi: Academy of Law and Religion.

Nasution, Harun. (1985). Islam dan Sistem pemerintahan Sebagai yang Berkembang dalam Sejarah dalam Studia Islamika, Nomor 17 tahun VIII (July 1985). LP IAIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta.

Nurrohman. (2007). Syari’at Islam, Konstitusi dan HAM. Bandung: Pustaka al-Kasyaf.

Nurrohman and Fisher Zulkarnain. (2007). Pesantren Gontor di Pentas Nasional; Potret Sejarah dan Pemikiran Alumni Pesantren Gontor (Gontor Pesantren at National Stage; History dan Thought of Gontor Alumni). Bandung: Malindo Institute.

Nurrohman. (2007). Konsep Imama: Studi atas Pemikiran al-Haramain, (The concept of Imama; Study of al_Haramain Thinking). Bandung, Pustaka al-Kasyaf.

Praja, Juhaya S. (2009). Teori-teori Hukum Islam. Bandung: Pasca Sarjana Universitas Islam Negeri (UIN).

Sjadzali, Munawir. (1990). Islam dan Tata Negara. Jakarta: UI Press.

Steenbrink, Karel A. (1986). Pesantren Madrasah, Sekolah, Pendidikan Islam dalam Kurun Modern, Jakarta: LP3ES.

Suhartono. (7 Oktober 2010). KONFIGURASI POLITIK DAN LEGISLASI HUKUM ISLAM DI INDONESIA (Suatu Kajian tentang Positivisasi Fikih Muamalah dalam Perspektif Politik Hukum). http://www.badilag.net/data/ARTIKEL/WACANA HUKUM ISLAM/KONFIGURASI politik dan legislasi.pdf.

Suhartono. Konfigurasi Politik dan Legislasi Hukum Islam di Indonesia (Suatu Kajian tentang Positivisasi Fikih Muamalah dalam Perspektif Politik Hukum).

Surga Bukan Monopoli Muslim (Asghar Ali Engineer). (16 Oktober 2012). http://antimui.wordpress.com/2008/08/20/208/.

Syamsuddin, Din. (2006). The Role of Religions in Promoting Intercultural Understanding Toward Sustainable Peace. International Seminar hosted by the International Center for Islam and Pluralism (ICIP) and Finland Embassy Jakarta.

Wahid ed. Abdurrahman. (2009). Ilusi Negara Islam: Ekspansi Gerakan Transnasional di Indonesia. Jakarta: The Wahid Institute.

Watt, W.Montgomery. (1961). Muhammad Prophet and Statesman. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Zein, ed., Kurniawan. (2001). Syari’at Islam Yes Syari’at Islam No, Dilema Piagam Jakarta dalam Amandemen UUD 1945. Jakarta: Paramadina.

www.crisisgroup.org




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15575/ijni.v2i1.49

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Flag Counter

View My Stats

Creative Commons License

International Journal of Nusantara Islam is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License