Habitat and Distribution Modeling of Prehistoric Hippos (Hippopotamus sivalensis spp.) During Pleistocene in Java Island

Andriwibowo Andriwibowo, Adi Basukriadi, Erwin Nurdin

Abstract


Currently, there are only 2 extant species of hippos including common (Hippopotamus amphibius) and pygmy hippos (Choeropsis liberiensis) . But in prehistoric times, there were several species. During  Pleistocene these species were known to migrate to Java Island from Asian Continent and the species was Hippopotamus sivalensis spp. In this regard, this study aimed to model the habitat of H. sivalensis spp., ecology, and biodiversity of Hippopotamus sivalensis spp. based on the fossil record. The model was developed based on the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method using the R statistical package. The results showed that there were 7 populations of H. sivalensis spp. that lived at various altitudes with an average of 177 m above sea level (95% CI : 123-232 m). According to PCA, there were at least 2 separate populations of H. sivalensis spp. One population occupies the forest while another occupies a habitat close to the coast. Currently the habitat for H. sivalensis spp. already changed. Based on habitat modeling, H. sivalensis spp. inhabit streams with submerged aquatic plants and shrubs and trees growing along river banks.


Keywords


Fossil, habitat, hippos, model, PCA, Pleistocene

Full Text:

PDF

References


Azis, F. (2000). The Pleistocene Endemic Fauna of the Indonesian Archipelago. Tropics 10(1) : 135-

Bailey, G.N., Rey, S.C., & King, G.C.P. (2011). Landscapes of human evolution:

models and methods of tectonic geomorphology and the reconstruction of hominin landscapes. J. Hum. Evol. 60 : 257-280.

Bibi, F. & Métais, G. (2016). Evolutionary History of the Large Herbivores of South and Southeast Asia (Indomalayan Realm). In The Ecology of Large Herbivores in South and Southeast Asia.

Boisserie, J. (2005). The phylogeny and taxonomy of Hippopotamidae (Mammalia: Artiodactyla): a review based on morphology and cladistic analysis. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 143 : 1–26.

Bogui, B., Koffi, D.A., Koné, I., Ouattara, K., Kouakou, C., & Gnagbo, A. (2016). Distribution of Pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis) in Taï National Park, Ivory Coast : Influences of natural and anthropogenic factors. International Journal of Research in Biosciences 5 : 27-35.

Cranbrook, E. (2010). Late quaternary turnover of mammals in Borneo: the zooarchaeological record.

Biodivers. Conserv. 19 : 373–391.

Dammerman, K.W. (2016). On Prehistoric Mammals from the Sampoeng Cave, Central Java.

De Vos, J., Sartono, S., Sasmita, H.S., & Sondaar, P. Y. (1983). The pongo faunas from Java and Sumatra and their significance for biostratigraphical and paleoecological interpretation. Proc. Kon. Ned lletensch. B. 86 (4) : 417-425.

Fleagle, J.G., Shea, J.J., Grine, F.E., Baden, A.E., & Leakey, R.E. (2010). Out of Africa I: The First Hominin Colonization of Eurasia. PaleoAnthropology 2011: 192−194.

Harrison, T. (1997). The Anatomy, Paleobiology, and Phylogenetic Relationships of the Hippopotamidae (Mammalia, Artiodactyla) From the Manonga Valley, Tanzania. In: Harrison T, ed. Neogene paleontology of the Manonga Valley, Tanzania. New York: Plenum Press 137–190.

Jukar, A., Patnaik, R., Chauhan, P., Li, H.C., & Lin, J.P. (2019). The youngest occurrence of Hexaprotodon Falconer and Cautley, 1836 (Hippopotamidae, Mammalia) from South Asia with a discussion on its extinction. Quaternary International 528: 130-137.

Leinders, M.J.J., Aziz, F., Sondaar, P. Y., & De Vos, J. (1985). The age of hominid bearing deposit of Java: State of the art. Geologie en Mijnbouw 4: I67-173.

Pickford, M. (2015). Encore Hippo-thèses: Head and neck posture in Brachyodus (Mammalia, Anthracotheriidae) and its bearing on hippopotamid origins. Communications of the Geological Survey of Namibia. 16 : 223-262.

Radiansyah, D. (2010). Gigi Hewan dari Situs Gua Pawon (Jawa Barat).

R Core Team. (2013). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.

Roebroeks, W. (2006). The human colonisation of Europe: where are we?. J. Quaternary Sci. 21: 425-

Roth, H.H., Hoppe-Dominik, B., Mühlenberg, M., Steinhauer-Burkart, B., & Fischer, F. (2004)

Distribution and Status of the Hippopotamids in the Ivory Coast. African Zoology 39(2) : 211-

Siswanto & Noerwidi, S. (2016). The faunal position of Patiayam site in the biostratigraphy of Java. SBA 19(2) : 149-166.

Sondaar, P.Y. (1984). Faunal evolution and the mammalian biostratigaphy of Java. Coun Forsch. Inst. Senckenberg 69 : 219 -235.

Stears, K., Nuñez, T.A., & Muse, E.A. (2019). Spatial ecology of male hippopotamus in a changing watershed. Sci. Rep. 9.

Sudijono (1986). Status of the mammalian biostratigraphy of Java with special Sangiran area. In: ltihara, M. & T. Kamei., ed., Proc. of the First Inter. Coll. On reference to the Quarte. Strat. Of Asia Pacific Area 270-289. INQUA, Osaka.

Suraprasit, K., Jaeger, J.J, Chaimanee, Y., Chavasseau, O., Yameem C., Tian, P., & Panha, S. (2016)

The Middle Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from Khok Sung (Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand): biochronological and paleobiogeographical implications. ZooKeys 613 : 1–157.

Voris, H. (2000). Maps of Pleistocene sea levels in Southeast Asia: Shorelines, river systems and time durations. Journal of Biogeography. 27. 1153 - 1167.

Westaway, K., Morwood., M., Roberts, R., Rokus, A.D., Zhao, J., Storm, P., Aziz, F., Van den

Bergh, G., Pradana, H., Jatmiko, & Vos, J. (2007). Age and biostratigraphic significance of the Punung Rainforest Fauna, East Java, Indonesia, and implications for Pongo and Homo. Journal of human evolution 53 : 709-17.

Weston, E.M. (2000). A new species of Hippopotamus Hexaprotodon lothagamensis (Mammalia: Hippopotamidae) from the late Miocene of Kenya. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(1) : 177-185.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15575/biodjati.v6i1.10250

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Indexing By :

      

      

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

 

View My Stats