Habitat Preference Modeling of Prehistoric Giant Shark Megalodon During Miocene in Bentang Formation of West Java Coast

Andriwibowo Andriwibowo, Adi Basukriadi, Erwin Nurdin, Muh Aydava Mubarok

Abstract


In the Miocene era about 20 million years ago, the South Coast of West Java was a sea and habitat for marine organisms including giant sharks Megalodon measuring about 18 meters long. This study aimed to model the habitat preference of the prehistoric gigantic shark Otodus megalodon population based on the fossil record. From fossil teeth, it revealed that the rock layer where the teeth found was Bentang formation from Miocene era. Many fossils of Megalodon had been unearthed from Bentang formation which is part of the South Coast of West Java. The habitat model was developed using the Sea Level Rise Inundation Tool of ArcGIS to estimate the sea depth and Megalodon’s habitat during the Miocene. The length of the teeth of O. megalodon found was ranged from 13 to 19 cm, indicating the presence of juvenile and adult O. megalodon. Based on the model, in the Miocene era, half of West Java was a sea with a depth ranging from 0 to 200 meters. At that time, it was estimated that juvenile O. megalodon occupied waters with a depth of 0-40 meters with an area of 1365 km2. Meanwhile, adult O. megalodon prefers a depth of 80-160 m and the frequency of habitat use increases at a depth of 200 m. The declining population of O. megalodon is associated with climate change and declining prey populations.


Keywords


depth, habitat, model, shark, tooth

Full Text:

PDF

References


Azizah, B. (2020). Geologi dan Potensi Batuan Tufa Sebagai Bahan Baku Industri Daerah Karangmekar dan Sekitarnya Kecamatan Karangnunggal Kabupaten Tasikmalaya, Provinsi Jawa Barat. JOM Bidang Teknik Geologi, 1(1), 1-14.

Baleytó, M.A., Leos-Barajas, V., Adam, T., Hoyos, M., Santana-Morales, O., Galván-Magaña, F., Armas, G.R., Lowe, C., Ketchum, J. & Villalobos, H. (2021). Diving Deeper Into the Underlying white Shark Behaviors at Guadalupe Island, Mexico. Ecology and Evolution. 11(21), 1-18.

Boessenecker, R., Ehret, D., Long, D.,Churchill, M., Boessenecker, S., & Martin, E. (2019). The Early Pliocene extinction of the mega-toothed shark Otodus megalodon: a View from the Eastern North Pacific. PeerJ, 7.

Bradford, R., Patterson, T.A. & Rogers, P.J. (2020). Evidence of Diverse Movement Strategies and Habitat Use by white Sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, off Southern Australia. Mar Biol, 167(96), 1-12..

Cooper, J.A., Pimiento, C., Ferrón, H.G. et al. (2020). Body Dimensions of the Extinct Giant Shark Otodus megalodon: a 2D reconstruction. Sci Rep, 10(1), 14596.

Curtis, T.H., McCandless, C.T., Carlson, J.K., Skomal, G.B., Kohler, N.E. & Natanson, L. (2014). Seasonal Distribution and Historic Trends in Abundance of White Sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, in the Western North Atlantic Ocean. PLoS ONE, 9(6).

Gaffar, E. Z. 2017. Subsurface Geological Structure In South Garut Based On Electromagnetic Data. Ris.Geo.Tam, 27(2), 123-131.

Godfrey, S., Nance, J. & Riker, N. (2021). Carcharocles-bitten Sperm Whale Tooth from the Neogene of the Coastal Eastern United States. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 66.

Herraiz, J.L., Ribé, J., Héctor, B., Carlos, M., & Humberto, F. (2020). Use of Nursery Areas by the Extinct Megatooth Shark Otodus megalodon (Chondrichthyes: Lamniformes). Biol. Lett.16(11).

Holbourn, A.E., Kuhnt, W. & Clemens, S.C. (2018). Late Miocene Climate Cooling and Intensification of Southeast Asian Winter Monsoon. Nat Commun, 9, 1584.

Keyes, I. W. (1972). New Records of the Elasmobranch C. megalodon (Agassiz) and a Review of the Genus Carcharodon in the New Zealand Fossil Record. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 15(2), 228-242.

Kocsis, L. & Razak, H. (2018). Late Miocene Otodus (Megaselachus) megalodon from Brunei Darussalam: Body Length Estimation and Habitat Reconstruction. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie - Abhandlungen, 288, 299-306.

Levy, Y., Goring-Morris, N. A. & Yechieli, Y. (2019). Harnessing Paleohydrologic Modeling to Solve a Prehistoric Mystery. Sci Rep, 9, 16349.

Perez, V., Leder, R. & Badaut, T. (2021). Body Length Estimation of Neogene Macrophagous Lamniform Sharks (Carcharodon and Otodus) Derived from Associated Fossil dentitions. Palaeontologia Electronica, 24(1), 1-12.

Pimiento, C., Ehret, D., Macfadden, B. & Hubbell, G. (2010). Ancient Nursery Area for the Extinct Giant Shark Megalodon from the Miocene of Panama. PloS one. 5(5), e10552

Pimiento, C., & Clements, C.F. (2014). When Did Carcharocles megalodon Become Extinct? a New Analysis of the Fossil Record. PLoS ONE, 9(10), e111086.

Pimiento, C. & Balk, M.A. (2015). Body-Size Trends of The Extinct Giant Shark Carcharocles megalodon: a Deep-time Perspective on Marine Apex Predators. Paleobiology, 41(3), 479-490.

Pimiento, C., MacFadden, B., Clements, C., Varela, S., Jaramillo, C., Velez-Juarbe, J. & Silliman, B. (2016). Geographical Distribution Patterns of Carcharocles megalodon Over Time Reveal Clues About Extinction Mechanisms. Journal of Biogeography, 43(8), 1645-1655.

Reolid, M. & Molina, J. (2015). Record of Carcharocles megalodon in the Eastern Guadalquivir Basin (Upper Miocene, South Spain). Estudios Geológicos, 71, (2): e032

Satria, D., Ramadhani, R., Suriyanto, R., Novian, M.. (2018). The Diversity of Sharks Fossils in Plio-Pleistocene of Java, Indonesia. AIP Conference Proceedings. 2002. 1-12.

Syahied, F.I., Noor, D. & Ridwansyah, I. (2020). Geologi Daerah Simpang dan Sekitarnya Kecamatan Karangnunggal Kabupaten Tasikmalaya, Provinsi Jawa Barat dan Potensi Kerentanan Pencemaran Air Tanah Dangkal di Das Situ Rawa Gede Desa Sirna Jaya Kecamatan Sukamakmur, Kabupaten Bogor, Provinsi Jawa Barat. JOM Bidang Teknik Geologi, 1(1).

Trif, N., Ciobanu, R. & Vlad, C. (2016). The First Record of the Giant Shark Otodus megalodon (Agassiz, 1835) from Romania. Brukenthal Acta Musei, XI, 507-526.

Veatch, E. G., Tocheri, M.W., Sutikna, T., McGrath, K., Saptomo, E.W., Jatmiko, & Helgen, K.M. (2019). Temporal Shifts in the Distribution of Murine Rodent Body Size Classes at Liang Bua (Flores, Indonesia) Reveal New Insights Into the Paleoecology of Homo floresiensis and Associated Fauna. Journal of Human Evolution, 130, 45-60.

Yondri. L., Oscandar, F., & Malinda, Y. 2020.Utilization of marine resources in prehistoric era at Pawon Cave West Java. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 584, 1-8.

Yudha, D. S., Ramadhani, R., Suriyanto, R.A. & Novian, M.I. (2018). The diversity of Sharks Fossils in Plio-Pleistocene of Java, Indonesia. AIP Conference Proceedings 2002(1), 1-8.

Weng, K., Lowe, C., Winkler, C. & Block B. 2007. Movements, Behavior and Habitat Preferences of Juvenile White Sharks Carcharodon carcharias in the Eastern Pacific. Marine Ecology-progress Series, 338, 211-224.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15575/biodjati.v6i2.14115

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Jurnal Biodjati



Indexing By :

      

      

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

 

View My Stats