Effect of Nitrogen Source on Growth Endophytic Yeast from Salacca edulis Reinw. and Bread Quality Analysis

Nuzulul Zahroh(1), Ulfah Utami(2), Nur Kusmiyati(3*)

(1) Master Biology Program, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim, Jl. Gajayana No. 50, Malang, East Java, Indonesia, 65144,  
(2) Master Biology Program, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim, Jl. Gajayana No. 50, Malang, East Java, Indonesia, 65144, Indonesia
(3) , Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


east biomass is often used in the fermentation of bread dough. Dough fermentation can be maximized by adding a nitrogen source. This study used yeast isolates from salak pondoh (YIS-3, YIS-4, and YIS-7). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of nitrogen addition on yeast growth and bread quality. This study used an experimental approach. The results of the growth study showed that all isolates treated with 0.05% urea produced higher biomass and cell counts than those treated with control. The highest biomass was produced by YIS-7, which was 3.81 g/300mL, while the highest number of cells was produced by YIS-3, which was 29.02x106 cells/mL. The percentage of proofing results showed that all yeast isolates treated with 0.05% urea needed a longer time to achieve the highest proofing. However, the volume of bread after baking showed better results than those treated with control. The largest volume of bread produced by YIS-3, was 972.14 cm3. The results of the organoleptic test showed that P<5%, which means that all treatments had a significant effect on the taste, aroma, color, and texture of the bread. Overall, the panelists gave good acceptance of the bread fermented by YIS-3 with 0.05% urea treatment. So it can be concluded that the addition of urea with a concentration of 0.05% in YIS-3 gave the best effect on the yeast growth and bread quality.


bread quality, nitrogen, yeast growth

Full Text:



Akbar, G. P., Endang, K. & Wijanarka1, D. (2019). Isolasi dan Karakterisasi Secara Morfologi dan Biokimia Khamir dari Limbah Kulit Nanas Madu (Ananas comosus L.) untuk Produksi bioetanol. Berkala Bioteknologi, 2(2), 1–11.

Atanasova, M., Yordanova, G., Nenkova, R., Ivanov, Y., Godjevargova, T. & Dinev, D. (2019). Brewing Yeast Viability Measured Using a Novel Fluorescent Dye and Image Cytometer. Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment, 33(1), 548–558.

Azizah, N., Al-bAARI, A. & Mulyani, S. (2012). Pengaruh Lama Fermentasi Terhadap Kadar Alkohol, pH, dan Produksi Gas pada Proses Fermentasi Bioetanol dari Whey dengan Substitusi Kulit Nanas. Jurnal Aplikasi Teknologi Pangan, 1(2), 72–77.

Brice, C., Cubillos, F. A., Dequin, S., Camarasa, C. & Martínez, C. (2018). Adaptability of The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeasts to Wine Fermentation Conditions Relies on Their Strong Ability to Consume Nitrogen. PLoS ONE, 13(2), 1–20.

Broach, J. R. (2012). Nutritional Control of Growth and Development in Yeast. Genetics, 192(1), 73–105.

Cueto-Rojas, H. F., Milne, N., Helmond, W., Pieterse, M. M., Maris, A. J. A., Daran, J. M. & Wahl, S. A. (2017). Membrane Potential Independent Transport of NH3 in The Absence of Ammonium Permeases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. BMC Systems Biology, 11(1), 1–13.

Dewi, R., Wijanarka. & Pujiyanto, S. (2018). Pengaruh Penambahan Tepung Azolla Sp. dan Perbedaan Waktu Inkubasi Terhadap Produksi Inulinase Khamir Pichia manshurica DUCC Y-015 Pada Medium Tepung Umbi Dahlia (Dahlia variabilis Willd.). Jurnal Akademika Biologi, 7(4), 7–14.

Hafsan. (2011). Mikrobiologi Umum. Makassar: Alauddin University Press.

Halász, A. & Lásztity, R. (2017). Use of Yeast Biomass in Food Production. Hungary: CRC Press.

Heitmann, M., Zannini, E., Axel, C. & Arendt, E. (2017). Correlation of Flavor Profile to Sensory Analysis of Bread Produced with Different Saccharomyces cerevisiae Originating from The Baking and Beverage Industry. Cereal Chemistry, 94(4), 746–751.

Hesham, A. E. L., Mostafa, Y. S. & Alsharqi, L. E. O. (2020). Optimization of Citric Acid Production by Immobilized Cells of Novel Yeast Isolates. Mycobiology, 48(2), 122–132.

Houngbédji, M., Madodé, Y. E., Mestres, C., Akissoé, N., Manful, J., Matignon, B., Grabulos, J. & Joseph Hounhouigan, D. (2018). The Quality of Steam-Cooked Rice Bread is Directly Linked with The Level of Starch Gelatinization and The Fluidity of Fermented Dough. Journal of Cereal Science, 80, 1–8.

Ilmi, I. M. B. & Aulia, W. (2020). Nutritional Value and Organoleptic of Gembili Yogurt with The Addition of Red Dragon Fruit Juice. Advances in Health Sciences Research, 30, 188–193.

Irmayuni, Endang., Nurmila, Nurmila., A. S. (2018). Efektivitas Air Nira Lontar (Borassus flabellifer) sebagai Bahan Pengembang Adonan Kue Apem. Jurnal Pendidikan Teknologi Pertanian, 4.

Jach, M. E. & Serefko, A. (2018). Nutritional Yeast Biomass: Characterization and Application. Diet, Microbiome and Health, 237–270.

Karki, T. B., Timilsina, P. M., Yadav, A., Pandey, G. R., Joshi, Y., Bhujel, S., Adhikari, R. & Neupane, K. (2017). Selection and Characterization of Potential Baker’s Yeast from Indigenous Resources of Nepal. Biotechnology Research International, 1–10.

Kim, D. H., Jang, K. A. & Lee, S. J. (2020). Prediction Method of CO2 Production from Electrical Resistance of Bread Dough Measured with a Simple Electrical Multimeter in Fermentation. Food Science and Biotechnology, 29(2), 235–241.

Lahue, C., Madden, A. A., Dunn, R. R. & Smukowski Heil, C. (2020). History and Domestication of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Bread Baking. Frontiers in Genetics, 11.

Linder, T. (2019). Nitrogen Assimilation Pathways in Budding Yeasts. In Non-conventional Yeasts: from Basic Research to Application.

Lleixà, J., Manzano, M., Mas, A., & Portillo, M. del C. (2016). Saccharomyces and Non-Saccharomyces Competition During Microvinification Under Different Sugar and Nitrogen Conditions. Frontiers in Microbiology, 7, 1–10.

Mahardika, G. R., Pratikno, H. & Titah, S. (2018). Analisis Ketahanan Microalga pada Material Baja AH 36 dengan Menggunakan Metode Impressed Current Anti Fouling (ICAF). JURNAL TEKNIK, 7(2).

Maicas, S. (2020). The Role of Yeasts in Fermentation Processes. Microorganisms, 8(8), 1–8.

Maryam, B. M., Sambo, S., Mohammed, D. & Ayodeji, O. A. (2017). Screening of Fermentative Potency of Yeast Isolates from Indigenous Sources for Dough Leavening. International Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2(1), 12–17.

Matovic, D. (2011). Biomass-Detection, Production and Usage. Croatia: InTech.

Mildner-Szkudlarz, S., Siger, A., Szwengiel, A., Przygoński, K., Wojtowicz, E. & Zawirska-Wojtasiak, R. (2017). Phenolic Compounds Reduce Formation of Nε-(carboxymethyl) Lysine and Pyrazines Formed by Maillard Reactions in a Model Bread System. Food Chemistry, 231, 175–184.

Miś, A., Nawrocka, A. & Dziki, D. (2016). Identification of Baking Expansion Phases of Leavened Dough Using an Experimental Approach. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 9(5), 892–903.

Murad, H. A., Hosseany, E. N., Elhamid, S. M. A., Khair, A. G. A. & Azzaz, H. H. (2019). Utilization of Hydrolyzed UF-permeate Supplemented with Different Nitrogen Sources and Vitamins for Production of Baker ’ s Yeast. Biotechnology, 18(2), 55–63.

Nicolas, O., Aly, S., Marius, K. S., François, T., Cheikna, Z. & Alfred, S. T. (2017). Effect of Mineral Salts and Nitrogen Source on Yeast (Candida utilis NOY1) Biomass Production Using Tubers Wastes. African Journal of Biotechnology, 16(8), 359–365.

Pérez-Torrado, R., Gamero, E., Gómez-Pastor, R., Garre, E., Aranda, A. & Matallana, E. (2015). Yeast Biomass, an Optimised Product with Myriad Applications in The Food Industry. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 46(2), 167–175.

Pongcharoen, P., Chawneua, J. & Tawong, W. (2018). High Temperature Alcoholic Fermentation by New Thermotolerant Yeast Strains Pichia kudriavzevii Isolated from Sugarcane Field Soil. Agriculture and Natural Resources, 52(6), 511–518.

Putri, A.P. & Restuhadi, F., R. (2016). Hubungan Antara Kadar Gula Reduksi, Jumlah Sel Mikrob dan Etanol dalam Produksi Bioetanol dari Fermentasi Air Kelapa dengan Penambahan Urea. Jom FAPERTA, 3(2), 33–37.

Radiastuti, N., Fitri, R. & Berty, G. (2020). Potency of Papaya Seed Powder (Carica papaya L.) as Chicken Meat and Shrimp Preservative. Jurnal Biodjati, 5(2), 281–293.

Riza, M. (2016). Pemanfaatan Limbah Kulit Ubi Kayu ( Manihot utilissima Pohl .) dan Kulit Nanas ( Ananas comosus L .) pada Produksi Bioetanol Menggunakan Aspergillus niger. The 3rd Universty Research Colloquium, 604–614.

Sari, Y. I. (2020). Isolasi dan Karakterisasi Khamir pada Buah Salak Pondoh (Salacca edulis Reinw.) Sebagai Kandidat Pengembang Roti. Thesis. Malang: Universitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang.

Shabrina, N. (2017). Pengaruh Substitusi Tepung Terigu dengan Tepung Kacang Koro Pedang (Canavalia ensiformis L) dan Lama Fermentasi Terhadap Karakteristik Roti Tawar. Skripsi. Repository Unpas, 53(9), 1689–1699.

Starowicz, M. & Zieliński, H. (2019). How Maillard Reaction Influences Sensorial Properties (Color, Flavor and Texture) of Food Products? Food Reviews International, 35(8), 707–725.

Veaudor, T., Cassier-Chauvat, C. & Chauvat, F. (2019). Genomics of Urea Transport and Catabolism in Cyanobacteria: Biotechnological Implications. Frontiers in Microbiology, 10, 1–14.

Walker, G. M. & Stewart, G. G. (2016). Saccharomyces cerevisiae in The Production of Fermented Beverages. Beverages, 2(4), 1–12.

Watanabe, M., Uchida, N., Fujita, K., Yoshino, T. & Sakaguchi, T. (2016). Bread and Effervescent Beverage Productions with Local Microbes for The Local Revitalization. International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, 6(3), 381–384.

Xu, D., Yin, Y., Ali, B., Zhang, Y., Guo, L. & Xu, X. (2019). Isolation of Yeast Strains from Chinese Liquor Daqu and Its Use in The Wheat Sourdough Bread Making. Food Bioscience, 31, 100443.

Zhen, S., Deng, X., Xu, X., Liu, N., Zhu, D., Wang, Z. & Yan, Y. (2020). Effect of High-Nitrogen Fertilizer on Gliadin and Glutenin Subproteomes During Kernel Development in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Crop Journal, 8(1), 38–52.

Zohri, A. A., Fadel, M., Hmad, M. & El-sharkawey, H. F. (2017). Effect of Nitrogen Sources and Vitamins Addition on Baker ’ s Yeast Fermentation Activity. Egyptian Sugar Journal, s9, 57–66.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15575/biodjati.v7i1.16854


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Biodjati

License URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Indexing By :



Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


View My Stats