Perbudakan di Ommelanden dan Wilayah Sulu Abad XVIII–XIX: Sebuah Tinjauan Komparatif

Heru Mulyanto, Lazzuarda Pramudita Amalia, Nabiel Fakriyah Zaldi

Abstract


The areas of Sulu and Ommelanden are discussed in this study because these two places have similarities in socio-economic elements, that is slavery which is the main focus in this study. The Dutch who held slavery in Ommelanden and the Sulu Sultan who controlled slavery in Sulu becoming an interesting topics to discuss because they raise differences in a similarity. This study aims to describe the comparison of slave management systems, slave marketing, cases that have occurred and other matters related to slavery in Southeast Asia (especially in Ommelanden & Sulu). The methodology used in this research is a historical method using international literature sources which are analyzed in depth. The results showed that slavery carried out by the Dutch in Ommelanden was more organized while slavery in Sulu was based on illegal acts and was accompanied by violence. In addition, the slaves who were rented/traded in Ommelanden were obtained legally, while the Sulu slaves were obtained through piracy and kidnapping by the Illanun & Balagingi people. The difference in the subject of management creates a fundamental difference as well.

Keywords: Ommelanden, Sulu, slave market, violence against slaves, slavery laws.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Buku

Lapian, A.B. Orang Laut, Bajak Laut, Raja Laut: Sejarah Kawasan Laut Sulawesi Abad XIX. Depok: Komunitas Bambu, 2009.

Schrikker, A & Wickramasinghe, N. (ed). Being A Slave: Histories and Legacies of European Slavery in the Indian Ocean. Leiden: Leiden University Press, 2020.

Reid, Anthony. “Closed” and “Open” Slave Systems in Pre-Colonial Southeast Asia” dalam Critical Readings on Global Slavery, (ed) Damian Allan Paragas & Felicia Rosu. Leiden: Brill Publishing, 2018.

Jurnal

Arcilla, Jose. S. “Slavery, Flogging and Other Moral Cases in 17th Century Philippines”. Philippine Studies, Vol. 20, No. 3 (1972): 399-416.

Jones, Eric. A. “Fugitive Women: Slavery and Social Change in Early Modern Southeast Asia”. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, vol 38 (2) (2007): 215–245.

Moore, Gene. M. Slavery and Racism in Joseph Conrad's Eastern World. Journal of Modern Literature, Vol 30, No. 4 (2007): 20-38.

Mulyanto, H. “Sejarah Maritim Filipina: Etnis, Agama, Kebudayaan, dan Kehidupan Suku-Suku Maritim di Laut Sulu Abad ke-18 – 20”. Metahumaniora Vol 11, no. 3 (2021): 297 – 313.

Noviyanti, R. “Gubernur Jenderal VOC Jan Pieterzoon Coen dan Pembangunan Kota Batavia (1619-1629)”. SOSIO-E-KONS, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2017): 54-64.

Riskianingrum, D. “The Chinese and Crime in the Ommelanden of Batavia 1780-1793”. Masyarakat Indonesia, Vol. 39, No. 1 (2013): 157-191.

Rossum, Mathias van. “Towards A Global Perspective On Early Modern Slave Trade: Prices of the Enslaved in the Indian Ocean, Indonesian Archipelago and Atlantic Worlds”. Journal of Global History, (2017) 1–27. Cambridge University Press.

_________________________ & Linda Mbeki. “Private Slave Trade in the Dutch Indian Ocean World: A Study Into the Networks and Backgrounds of the Slavers and the Enslaved in South Asia and South Africa”. Slavery & Abolition, Vol. 38, No. 1 (2017): 95–116.

Sunjayadi, A. “Pelayan Pribumi Dalam Akomodasi Turisme Di Hindia Belanda”. Abad: Jurnal Sejarah Vol 02, No 1 (2018): 145-162.

Tregonning, K.G.P. “The Elimination of Slavery in North Borneo”. Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society ,, Vol 26, No. 1, (1953) : 24-36.

Vink, Marcus. “From the Cape to Canton: The Dutch Indian Ocean World, 1600-1800 — A Littoral Census”. Journal of Indian Ocean World Studies, 3 (2019): 13-37.

___________. "The World's Oldest Trade": Dutch Slavery and Slave Trade in the Indian Ocean in the Seventeenth Century”. Journal of World History, Vol. 14, No. 2 (2003): 131-17.

Warren, James F. “The Structure of Slavery in the Sulu Zone in the Late Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries” dalam Critical Readings on Global Slavery. Ed. Damian Alan Pargas & Felicia Roşu, 1486-1504. Brill: Leiden & Boston.

_______________. “Slave Markets and Exchange in the Malay World: The Sulu Sultanate, 1770-1878”. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, Sep., 1977, Vol. 8, No. 2 (Sep., 1977), pp. 162-175.

Disertasi

Kanumoyoso, B. “Beyond The City Wall: Society and Economic Development in the Ommelanden of Batavia, 1684-1740”. Ph.D dissertation. Leiden Universiteit, 2011.

Warren, James. F. “Trade, Raid, Slave: The Social-Economic Patterns of the Sulu Zone, 1770-1898”. Ph.D Disertasi. Australian National University, 1975.

Arsip dan Dokumen Sezaman

Anonim. 1882. North Borneo Pamphlet. The University of Manchester: John Rylands University Library. diakses dari: https://www.jstor.org/stable/60231082 (20 April 2022, 21:23).

Arsip Nasional Republik Indonesia. 1723. Notarieel Archief No. 3935, MAT Notary Carel Schoute, 8 November 1723.

The State Attornerly-General's Chambers. 1881. British North Borneo Treaties. Seri terjemahan sumber sejarah. Malaysia: Sabah. diakses dari https://sagc.sabah.gov.my/ (20 April 2022, 21:08).

Treacher, W.H. 1891. British Borneo: Sketches of Brunai, Sarawak, Labuan, and North Borneo. Singapore: Government Printing Department.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15575/hm.v6i1.17856

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Historia Madania: Jurnal Ilmu Sejarah is Indexed By:

       OpenAIRE                             

All publications by Historia Madania: Jurnal Ilmu Sejarah are licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License