Parameter genetik kultivar-kultivar jagung local pada cekaman salinitas sedang

sakka bin samudin, Jeki Moh. Adnan Khalik, Ruli Akbar, Muliati Muliati, Mustakin Mustakin

Abstract


Produktivitas jagung di Sulawesi Tengah masih relatif rendah dibanding produksi nasional sehingga perlu ditingkatkan melalui pemuliaan tanaman. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengkaji parameter genetik tanaman jagung pada cekaman salinitas sedang.  Penelitian dilaksanakan pada Juni sampai Agustus 2019, di Green House Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Tadulako, Palu. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) terdiri atas 6 perlakuan genotip dan diulang 3 kali serta 5 unit tanaman per perlakuan sehingga terdapat 90 unit percobaan. Parameter genetik yang di analisis adalah koefisiean keragaman genotipik, koefisien keragaman fenotipik, heritabilitas, kemajuan genetik, korelasi, dan analisis sidik lintas. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kehijauan daun, bobot tongkol berkelobot, berat tongkol tidak berkelobot, dan berat biji pertongkol memiliki koefisien keragaman genetik tinggi. Kehijauan daun, berat tongkol berkelobot, bobot tongkol tidak berkelobot, panjang tongkol tidak berkelobot, diamater tongkol, berat biji per tongkol dan bobot 100 biji memiliki nilai heritabilitas dan kemajuan genetik tinggi. Seleksi secara tidak langsung dapat dilakukan pada umur panen agar diperoleh hasil jagung lokal yang tinggi pada kondisi tercekam salinitas sedang. Karakter-karakter tersebut dapat dijadikan acuan dalam menyeleksi tanaman jagung dengan cekaman salinitas sedang untuk program pemuliaan jagung.

Abstract

The productivity of maize in Central Sulawesi is relatively low compared to national production and needs to be improved by plant breeding. The study aimed to examine the genetic parameters of the maize plant traits at moderate salinity stress. The research was conducted from June to August 2019, at the Green House of the Faculty of Agriculture, Tadulako University, Palu. The genetic parameters analyzed were genetic coefficient of variation, phenotypic coefficient of variation, heritability, genetic advance, correlation, and path analysis. The experimental design used a completely randomized design consisting of six genotypic treatments and repeated three times. The results showed that the leaves greenness, the weight of the cob with and without husk, and weight of seeds per cob had a high genetic coefficient of variation. Leaf greenness, the weight of the ear with and without husk, ear length without husk, ear diameter, seed weight per ear and yield have a high value of heritability and genetic advance. Indirect selection can be applied through harvest time trait to obtain a high local maize yield in moderate salinity stress condition. These traits can be used as a reference in selecting maize plants with moderate salinity stress for maize breeding programs.


Keywords


cekaman salinitas, parameter genetik, kultivar jagung lokal

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.15575/10280

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