Kultur suspensi sel tanaman gajah beranak (Goniothalamus tapis Miq) terhadap kandungan zat goniotalamin

Imam Mahadi, Sri Wulandari, Wan Safii, Irda Sayuti

Abstract


Zat goniotalamin pada tanaman gajah beranak (Goniothalamus tapis) merupakan obat alternatif penyembuhan kanker. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mendapatkan zat goniotalamin melalui kultur kalus dan kultur suspensi sel. Metode penelitian eksperimen Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) dengan kombinasi 2,4-D (1-10 mgL-1) dan BAP (0,5-2 mgL-1) menggunakan eksplan batang muda, terdiri dari 17 perlakuan dan 3 kali ulangan. Analisis data menggunakan Analysis of Variances dan uji lanjut Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) taraf 5%. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa kultur kalus G. tapis pada media 5,0 mg L-1 2,4-D + 1 mg L-1 BAP adalah yang terbaik dengan waktu muncul kalus 28,33 hari dan persentase pembentukan kalus 100%. Kalus untuk kultur suspensi sel bertekstur remah dan berwarna kuning kehijauan. Kultur suspensi sel menghasilkan pertumbuhan sel yang cepat, tidak lembek berair dan mudah dipisahkan. Hasil kualitatif Kromatografi Lapis Tipis kultur suspensi sel sangat jelas, bersih dan terdapat potensi kandungan zat goniotalamin pada perlakuan 2,4-D 5 mg L-1 + BAP 0,5 mg L-1, 2,4-D 5 mg L-1 + BAP 1 mg L-1, 2,4-D 5 mg L-1 + BAP 2 mg L-1, 2,4-D 10 mg L-1 + BAP 0,5 mg L-1 dan 2,4-D 10 mg L-1 + BAP 1 mg L-1. Hasil kuantitatif zat goniotalamin dengan Kromatografi Cair Prestasi Tinggi terdapat pada perlakuan 2,4-D 5,0 mgL-1 + BAP 1 mg L-1 yaitu 9,57 mg g-1.

The goniothalamine compound on Goniothalamus tapis is an alternative cancer medicine. This study aimed to obtain gonotalamin through callus culture and suspension cell culture. The experiment research method was Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with a combination of 2.4-D (1-10 mg L-1) and BAP (0.5-2 mg L-1) using young stem explants consisting of 17 treatments with 3 replications. Data analysis used ANOVA and DMRT at 5%. The results showed that G. tapis callus culture on 5.0 mg L-1 2.4-D + 1 mg L-1 BAP was the best treatment medium with callus emergence time of 28.33 days and percentage of callus formation 100%. The callus used for suspension cell culture was friable and greenish-yellow in color. Suspension cell culture resulted in rapid cell growth, was not fleshy, and easily separated. The  quality test by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) from suspension cell culture resulted very clear, clean, and potential content of goniothalamin found in treatments 2.4-D 5.0 mg L-1 + BAP 0.5 mg L-1, 2.4-D 5.0 mg L-1 + BAP 1 mg L-1, 2.4-D 5.0 mg L-1 + BAP 2 mg L-1, 2.4-D 10 mg L-1 + BAP 0.5 mg-1 and 2.4-D 10 mg-1 + BAP 1 mg-1. The quantitative results of the best goniotalamine compounds in cell suspension cultures using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) on medium 2,4-D 5.0 mgL-1 + BAP 1 mg L-1 ie 9.57 g-1.


Keywords


Goniothalamus tapis, Goniotalamin, 2,4-D, BAP, Kultur suspensi sel

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.15575/14710

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