Seleksi dan indeks sensitivitas cekaman kekeringan galur-galur padi sawah tadah hujan

Wage Ratna Rohaeni, Untung Susanto

Abstract


Cekaman kekeringan hampir terjadi setiap tahun pada sawah tadah hujan. Salah satu teknologi untuk mengatasinya adalah dengan penanaman padi toleran kekeringan. Perakitan varietas toleran kekeringan terus dilakukan dengan mengevaluasi galur-galur yang ditujukan untuk stress kekeringan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menyeleksi, mengevaluasi penurunan hasil, dan mengetahui indeks sensitivitas cekaman kekeringan pada galur-galur tadah hujan hasil seleksi generasi lanjut. Percobaan seleksi cekaman kekeringan dilakukan pada Maret – November 2016 dengan materi genetik sebanyak 135 galur dan Cek Mekongga yang ditanam pada kondisi stress kekeringan (61-72 centibar/Kpa) dan evaluasi galur – galur terseleksi dilakukan pada Februari – Juli 2017 dengan menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok 3 ulangan. Hasil kegiatan seleksi memperoleh sebanyak 19 galur terbaik memiliki toleransi terhadap stres kekeringan untuk dilanjutkan pada kegiatan evaluasi lebih lanjut di kondisi sawah tadah hujan kondisi optimum. Hasil penelitian evaluasi 19 galur menunjukkan sebanyak 4 galur toleran yaitu BP17586-2-0-JK-3-IND-2-SKI-10-PWK-1-SKI-2 (ISK 0.49), BP18354-1-2-JK-3-IND-1-SKI-3-PWK-1-SKI-1 (ISK 0.49), BP18360-2-3-JK-1-IND-1-SKI-7-PWK-2SKI-1 (ISK 0.16), dan BP18406c-JK-1-IND-0-SKI-3-PWK-2-SKI-1 (ISK 0.1). Galur BP18354-1-2-JK-3-IND-1-SKI-3-PWK-1-SKI-1 (Y = 4,77 ton ha-1) adalah galur terbaik yang memiliki potensi hasil tinggi lebih baik dari cek Inpari 38 Tadah Hujan dan memiliki toleransi terhadap cekaman kekeringan. Galur ini potensial untuk diuji lebih lanjut dan dikembangkan di sawah tadah hujan.

 

                                                    ABSTRACT

Drought stress almost occurs every year in rainfed rice fields. One of the technologies to overcome is by planting drought tolerant varieties rice. Therefore, the assembly of drought tolerant varieties is carried out continuously by evaluating lines intended for drought stress. This study aimed to select, evaluate the decline in yield, and determine the drought tolerance index of rainfed lines resulting from advanced generation selection. Study-1 of drought stress selection experiment was carried out in WS 1 2016 (March – November) with 135 genetic lines and Mekongga as susceptible checks and Inpari 38 as resistant check planted in drought stress conditions (61-72 centibar / Kpa), and study-2 was an evaluation of selected strains carried out in WS 1 2017 (February – July) with 19 selected lines and 3 checks (Mekongga and Ciherang as susceptible check and Inpari 38 as resistant checks) by using a randomized block design with 3 replications. The results of the selection activities (Study-1) obtained as many as 19 of the best lines which had tolerance to drought stress and these lines were continued in further evaluation activities in rainfed lowland with optimum conditions (Study-2). The results showed that 4 of 19 lines were tolerant namely BP17586-2-0-JK-3-IND-2-SKI-10-PWK-1-SKI-2 (DSI - drought stress sensitivity index = 0.49), BP18354-1 -2-JK-3-IND-1-SKI-3-PWK-1-SKI-1 (DSI 0.49), BP18360-2-3-JK-1-IND-1-SKI-7-PWK-2SKI-1 (DSI 0.16), and BP18406c-JK-1-IND-0-SKI-3-PWK-2-SKI-1 (DSI 0.1). The BP18354-1-2-JK-3-IND-1-SKI-3-PWK-1-SKI-1 (Y = 4.77 tons ha-1) line was the best strain that had the potential for high yield better than the Inpari 38 Rainfed Check and had tolerance to stress. This strain has the potential to be further tested and developed in rain-fed rice fields.


Keywords


galur, indeks sensitivitas cekaman, kekeringan, tadah hujan

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.15575/3654

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