Keragaman genetik, fenotip dan heritabilitas beberapa genotip sorghum pada kondisi tumpangsari dan monokultur

Kukuh Setiawan, Rafika Restiningtias, Setyo Dwi Utomo, Ardian Ardian, M S Hadi, Sunyoto Sunyoto, Erwin Yuliadi

Abstract


Selain sebagai bahan pangan dan pakan, sorgum berpotensi menghasilkan nira untuk bioethanol. Beragamnya potensi hasil nira, mendorong perlunya evaluasi keragaan berbagai genotip sorgum untuk digunakan sebagai kriteria seleksi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi produksi nira, membandingkan keragaman genetik dan fenotip pada beberapa genotip sorgum, serta menghitung heritabilitas arti luas. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Desa Sukanegara, Kecamatan Tanjung Bintang, Kabupaten Lampung Selatan dari April 2017 sampai Februari 2018.  Rancangan perlakuan disusun secara strip plot dalam Rancangan Acak Kelompok Lengkap dengan tiga ulangan yang digunakan sebagai kelompok.  Kondisi tumpangsari dan monokultur yang digunakan sebagai pembanding disusun secara strip plot. Sebanyak 15 genotip digunakan, yaitu GH 3, GH 4, GH 5, GH 6, GH 7, GH 13, Super 1, Super 2, Samurai 1, UPCA, Numbu, Mandau, Talaga Bodas, P/IWHP, dan P/F 5-193-C. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa genotip Talaga Bodas mempunyai kandungan nira yang cukup tinggi baik pada kondisi tumpangsari maupun monokultur yang masing-masing sebesar 144,0 ml dan 166,0 ml.  Sementara genotip Super 1 menunjukkan kandungan nira paling tinggi pada kondisi tumpangsari (163,0 ml) dan genotip GH13 menghasilkan volume nira paling tinggi pada sistem monokultur (183,0 ml). Nilai heritabilitas arti luas pada tinggi tanaman, nilai brix, kandungan nira, dan jumlah ruas pada sistem tanam tumpangsari dan monokultur termasuk dalam kriteria tinggi (0,6-0,9). Nilai heritabilitas yang tinggi pada karakter tersebut menunjukkan bahwa faktor genetik lebih berpengaruh sehingga bisa digunakan sebagai kriteria seleksi.

ABSTRACT 

In addition to foodstuffs and feed, sorghum potentially produces “nira” for bioethanol. The varying potency of the nira results, prompting the need to evaluate the performance of various sorghum genotypes for use as selection criteria. The objectives of this study were to evaluate nira production, to compare genetics and phenotype variances of sorghum genotypes, also to calculate broad sense heritability of some sorghum genotypes.  This study was conducted at Desa Sukanegara, Kecamatan Tanjung Bintang, Kabupaten Lampung Selatan from April 2017 to February 2018.  The experiment was designed by stripe plot in completely randomized block design with three replications used as block. The conditions of monoculture and intercropping used as comparison were arranged in stripe plot.  As many as 15 genotypes used in this study i.e. GH 3, GH 4, GH 5, GH 6, GH 7, GH 13, Super 1, Super 2, Samurai 1, UPCA, Numbu, Mandau, Talaga Bodas, P/IWHP, and P/F 5-193-C. The result showed that Talaga Bodas genotype had high volume of nira content under monoculture and intercropping conditions as 144.0 ml and 166.0 ml, respectively. However, Super 1 genotype had high nira content (163.0 ml) under intercropping condition and GH13 genotype had high nira content under monoculture (183.0 ml). Broad sense heritability of plant height, brix value, nira content, and internode number in both intercropping and monoculture conditions was high (0.60 – 0.90).  These high heritability values mean that these characters are influenced by genetics factor and could be used as selection criteria.


Keywords


heritabilitas, ragam fenotip, ragam genetik

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.15575/4568

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