Variabilitas genetik, heritabilitas dan kemajuan genetik beberapa karakter kuantitatif galur F3 kedelai hasil persilangan

Anna Satyana Karyawati, Gita Novita Sari, Budi Waluyo

Abstract


Parameter genetik seperti keragaman genetik, heritabilitas dan kemajuan genetik diperlukan untuk merakit kultivar unggul. Untuk itu dialukan evaluasi keragaman genetik, heritabilitas dan kemajuan genetik populasi galur F3 kedelai dari 16 kombinasi persilangan dengan 6 tetua pada beberapa karakter kuantitatif diantaranya yaitu tinggi tanaman, jumlah cabang, jumlah polong isi, jumlah buku subur dan berat biji per tanaman. Penelitian untuk menyiapkan materi genetik dilakukan di Kebun Percobaan Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya, Jatikerto, Malang pada tahun 2013-2016. Percobaan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompk (RAK) dengan tiga ulangan. Populasi setiap galur F3 dan tetua pada setiap petak masing-masing 120 tanaman untuk setiap ulangan. Dari hasil keragaman genetik yang diamati, karakter tinggi tanaman, jumlah polong isi, jumlah buku subur dan berat biji per tanaman memiliki nilai keragaman genetik yang luas, sedangkan jumlah cabang memiliki keragaman genetik yang sempit. Nilai heritabilitas karakter pada kombinasi persilangan memiliki nilai sedang hingga tinggi yang berkisar antara 0,25-0,75. Pada karakter tinggi tanaman dari hasil persilangan galur (Anjasmoro x Tanggamus), (Anjasmoro x Grobogan), (Anjasmoro x UB2), (Argopuro x Grobogan), (Grobogan x Anjasmoro), (Grobogan x UB2), (UB2 x UB1), (UB1 x Argopuro) dan (UB1 x UB2) memiliki nilai heritabilitas sedang yaitu 0,46; 0,39; 0,37; 0,46; 0,46; 0,47; 0,46; 0,25; dan 0,47. Pada nilai kemajuan genetik dari 16 galur hasil persilangan, galur (UB2 x Tanggamus) memiliki nilai rata-rata kemajuan genetik paling tinggi yaitu 64,35%, sedangkan galur (UB1 x Argopuro) memiliki nilai rata-rata kemajuan genetik paling rendah yaitu 25,84%.

ABSTRACT 

The F3 soybean progenies derived from 16 cross combinations with six parents were evaluated for their genetic variability, heritability and genetic advances of quantitative traits i.e. plant height, number of branches, number of pods, number of active nodes and seeds weight per plant. The genetic material preparation was conducted at Research Station of Agriculture Faculty, Brawijaya University, Jatikerto, Malang from 2013 to 2016. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with three replications. Plant population of each Fprogenies and their parents were 120 plants at each replication. Among the quantitative characters observed, the variability of plant height, number of active nodes, number of pods and seeds weight per plant was wide, and number of branches was narrow. Heritability value in each cross combination had moderate to high value estimates ranged from 0.25 to 0.75. The character of plant height from crossing lines of (Anjasmoro x Tanggamus), (Anjasmoro x Grobogan), (Anjasmoro x UB2), (Argopuro x Grobogan), (Grobogan x Anjasmoro), (Grobogan x UB2), (UB2 x UB1), (UB1 x Argopuro) and (UB1 x UB2) had moderate heritability, i.e. 0.46; 0.39; 0.37; 0.46; 0.46; 0.47; 0.46; 0.25; and 0.47, respectively. The genetic advance from 16 cross combinations, the line of (UB2 x Tanggamus) had the highest mean of genetic advance for 64.35%. The line of (UB1 x Argopuro) had the lowest mean of genetic advance for 25.84%.


Keywords


Heritabilitas, Kedelai, Kemajuan genetik

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.15575/5174

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