Aplikasi dan efektivitas pupuk hayati dalam upaya perbaikan mutu produksi, produktivitas dan pengendalian serangan layu fusarium pada bawang merah

Wakiah Nuryani, Hanudin Hanudin, Kurniawan Budiarto

Abstract


Bawang merah (Allium ascalonicum L.) merupakan salah satu komoditas sayuran unggulan nasional yang mempunyai nilai ekonomi tinggi. Untuk pencapai target produksi yang maksimal, umumnya petani menggunakan pupuk dan pestisida kimia sintetik yang tinggi. Penurunan daya dukung lahan pertanian akibat penggunaan bahan kimia agroinput berlebihan mendorong penggunaan pupuk hayati berbahan aktif mikroba pemicu pertumbuhan terutama untuk mengurangi penggunaan pupuk kimia sintetik pada bawang merah. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi beberapa pupuk hayati yang dikombinasikan dengan pupuk kimia sintetik untuk meningkatkan kualitas pertumbuhan dan produksi bawang merah, serta menekan penyakit layu fusarium. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok dengan 3 ulangan. Perlakuan berupa tiga jenis pupuk hayati, yaitu Agrofit, Bio Pf dan Biotrico dikombinasikan dengan dosis pupuk kimia sintetik yaitu sebesar 0, 25, 50, 75, 100% dari dosis rekomendasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aplikasi kombinasi pupuk hayati Agrofit, Bio-Pf dan Biotrico dengan 50% dosis rekomendasi pupuk kimia sintetik dapat meningkatkan kualitas pertumbuhan dan bobot umbi kering sebesar 7.91 – 32.65% dari aplikasi pupuk kimia sintetik 100% dosis rekomendasi. Pada kombinasi Bio-Pf yang ditambah dengan 25% pupuk kimia sintetik dosis rekomendasi menunjukkan nilai efektifitas relatif agronomi dan nilai penekanan terhadap infeksi fusarium tertinggi. Kombinasi perlakuan ini juga memberikan total biomasa tidak berbeda pada dosis pupuk kimia sintetik 100%.

                                                         

ABSTRACT 

Shallot is one of important vegetables in Indonesia. Expecting high yield, farmers tend to apply high amount of chemical  fertilizer and shynthetic pesticide. The concern to the negative impacts of chemical agroinput in agriculture production has induced the application of biofertilizer containing beneficial microbes to reduce the use of synthetic fertilizers in shallot production. The research was conducted to evaluate several formulated biofertilizers combined with synthetic fertilizers on growth, yield and productivity improvement, and fusarium wilt control on shallot. The research was conducted at Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia from March to August 2017. The combination of bio-fertilizer types, i.e. Agrofit, Bio-Pf and Biotrico and synthetic fertilizers in different dosages, i.e 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 % from recommended dosages were arranged in completely randomized block design with three replications. The results showed the application of bio-fertilizers might reduce 50% of synthetic fertilizer usage. The combined application of each bio-fertilizer with 50% recommended dosage of synthetic fertilizers improved growth quality and total dry bulb weight of 7.91 – 32.65% from 100% recommended dosage of synthetic fertilizer. The combination of Bio-Pf and Agrofit with 25% recommended synthetic fertilizer gave highest relative agronomic effectiveness value and fusarium wilt suppression. Total biomass weight of these treatments also had negligible differences with 100% synthetic fertilizers dosages.

 


Keywords


Allium ascalonicum L., bobot umbi, efektifitas, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (Snyder and Hans.), pupuk hayati

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References


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.15575/5871

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