Keragaman genetik dan heritabilitas 12 genotipe bawang merah (Alllium cepa L. var Aggregatum) di dataran tinggi

Nurmalita Waluyo, Noladhi Wicaksana, Anas Anas, Iteu M. Hidayat

Abstract


Bawang merah (Allium cepa L. var aggregatum) salah satu komoditas hortikultura banyak di konsumsi. Peningkatan permintaan dalam kuantitas dan kualitas untuk komoditas ini meningkatkan ketersediaan varietas unggul. Penelitian dilakukan untuk menduga keragaman genotipe dan fenotipe serta nilai heritabilitas karakter pertumbuhan, komponen hasil dan hasil bawang merah di tiga lokasi dataran tinggi (Lembang 1.250 m dpl, Kab. Bandung Barat; Pacet 971 m dpl, Kab. Bandung; dan Samarang, 970 m dpl, Kab. Garut). Penelitian dilaksanakan dari September sampai Nopember 2019. Materi genetik yaitu 12 genotipe bawang merah terdiri dari 7 klon: B1, B19, B63, B72, B77, B102, dan B222, serta 5 varietas: Trisula, Bali Karet, Maja Cipanas, Bima Brebes dan Sumenep. Rancangan percobaan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) dengan 3 ulangan. Hasil analisis ragam menunjukan genotipe berpengaruh sangat nyata terhadap seluruh karakter pertumbuhan, komponen hasil, dan hasil. Nilai koefisisen keragaman genotipe dan fenotipe yang tinggi diperlihatkan oleh karakter persentase tanaman berbunga (48,10 % dan 49,01 %), berat basah per umbi (29,71 % dan 30,87 %), dan berat kering per umbi (33,17 % dan 34,29 %). Nilai duga heritabilitas arti luas (Hbs) karakter pada 12 genotipe bawang merah berkisar antara 45,08-96,30 %. Semua karakter yang diuji memiliki nilai heritabilitas tinggi kecuali untuk karakter jumlah daun per rumpun nilai heritabilitasnya sedang. Seleksi bawang merah di dataran tinggi dapat dilakukan pada generasi awal.

Abstract

Shallots (Allium cepa L. var aggregatum) are one of the most widely consumed horticultural commodities in Indonesia. Increased demand in quantity and quality for this commodity improved availability varieties. A study was conducted to estimate variability of genotypes and phenotypes as well as the heritability value of growth characters, yield components, and yields of shallot at three highland locations (Lembang 1.250 m asl, West Bandung District; Pacet 971 m asl, Bandung District; and Samarang 970 m asl, Garut District). The research was conducted from September to November 2019. The genetic material studied was 12 genotypes of shallots consisting of 7 clones: B1, B19, B63, B72, B77, B102, and B222, and 5 varieties: Trisula, Bali Karet, Maja Cipanas, Bima Brebes, and Sumenep. Every experiments in all locations was arranged in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with 3 replications. The analysis of variance results showed that the genotype had a very significant effect on all growth characters, yield components, and yields. High variation coefficient values of genotype and phenotype was found in the character of percentage of flowering plants (48.10% and 49.01%), freshweight per bulb (29.71% and 30.87%), and dry weight per bulb (33.17% and 34.29%). All characters tested had a wide phenotific variability. The estimated value of heritability (broad meaning) of the characters in 12 shallot genotypes ranged from 45.08 to 96.30%. All characters tested has high heritability except for the number of leaves per clump the heritability was moderate. The study is the shallot selection in the highlands can be carried out in the early generations.


Keywords


keragaman genetik, keragaman fenotip, heritabilitas, bawang merah

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.15575/9518

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