Aldim Aldim


In his recent contribution to the British Educational Research Journal, Pauline McClenaghan identified the relationship between social capital and community empowerment, specifically community empowerment education, as a core area where scientific interests and policies overlap. He concluded that the concept of social capital cannot wrestle with the complex social divisions that characterize contemporary Europe. The authors of this article question their research for three main reasons: the definition of social capital they hold is too narrow, and does not deal with what Woolcock calls the linking role of social networking; presentation of the theoretical underpinnings of community empowerment, which they believe to be flawed in certain important matters; and lack of clarity in the relationship between research and reported findings. The authors then present their own research theoretically social capital information as a means to understand the role of community empowerment, challenges that can be faced and the role of education for community empowerment.

Full Text:



Aherne, B. (2001) Social capital: lessons for public policy development, Speech to Seminar on Social Capital, Dublin Castle, 29 March 2001.

Aigner, S., Flora, C. & Hernandez, J. (1999) The Premise and Promise of Citizenship and Civil Societyfor Renewing Democracies and Empowering Sustainable Communities (Edinburgh, International Association of Community Development).

Bergstrom, A., Clark, R., Hogue, T., Perkins, D. & Slinski, M. (1995) Collaboration Framework: Addressing community capacity (University of New Mexico, National Network for Collaboration).

Bourdieu, P. (1986) The forms of capital, in: J. Richardson (Ed.) Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education (Westport, CT, Greenwood Press).

Coleman, J. (1988) Social capital in the creation of human capital, American Journal of Sociology, 94, Supplement, pp. 95–120.

Coleman, J. (1990) Foundations of Social Theory (Cambridge, MA, Belknap Press).

Collins, R. (1994) Four Sociological Traditions (New York, Oxford University Press).

Cooke, P. & Morgan, K. (1998) The Associational Economy: firms, regions and innovation (Oxford, Oxford University Press).

Dickie, M. & Stewart Weeks, M. (1999) Presentation on the national marketing strategy for skills and lifelong learning, ANTA Training Update Seminar Keynote Address:

Durkheim, E. (1984). The Division of Labor in Society (New York, The Free Press).

Falk, I., Golding, B. & Balatti, J. (2000) Building Communities: ACE, lifelong learning and social capital (Melbourne, Language Australia).

Falk, I. & Kilpatrick, S. (2000) What is social capital? A study of a rural community, Sociologia Ruralis, 1(40), pp. 87–110.

Ffowcs-Williams, I. (1997) Local clusters and local export growth, New Zealand Strategic Management, 1(3), pp. 24–30.

Field, J. & Spence, L. (2000) Social capital and informal learning, in: F. Coffield (Ed.) The Necessity of Informal Learning (Bristol, Policy Press).

Flora, J. (1998) Social capital and communities of place: presidential address, Rural Sociology, 63, pp. 481–506.

Flora, C. B., Flora, J. & Wade, K. (1996) Measuring success and empowerment, in: N. WALTZER Community Strategic Visioning Programs (London, Praeger).

Flora, J., Sharp, J., Flora, C. & Newlon, B. (1997) Entrepreneurial social infrastructure and locally initiated economic development in the non-metropolitan United States, Sociological Quarterly, 38, pp. 623–645.

Fukuyama, F. (2001) Social capital, civil society and development, Third World Quarterly, 22, pp. 7–20.

Galston, W. & Baehler, H. (1995) Rural Development in the United States: connecting theory, practice and possibilities (Washington, DC, Island Press).

Geddes, M. (1998) Local Partnership: a successful strategy for social cohesion?. (Dublin, European Foundation for Improvement of Living and Working Conditions).

Glaeser, E. (2001). The formation of social capital, Isuma: Canadian Journal of Policy Research, 2, pp. 34–40.

Glaeser, E., Laibson, D., Scheinkman, J. & Soutter, C. (2000). Measuring trust, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 115, pp. 811–846.

Granovetter, M. (1973). The strength of weak ties, American Journal of Sociology, 78, pp. 1360–1380.

Granovetter, M. (1985). Economic action and social structure: the problem of embededness, AmericanJournal of Sociology, 91, pp. 481–510.

Hibbitt, K., Jones, P. & Meegan, R. (2001) Tackling social exclusion: the role of social capital in urban regeneration on Merseyside, European Planning Studies, 9, pp. 141–161.

Holdsworth, L. (2001). The new ethics of leadership, Chartered Accountants Journal of New Zealand, 80(3), pp. 6–8.

Kilpatrick, S. & Bell, R. (1998). Review of Research … VET for people from rural/non metropolitan areas (Adelaide, National Centre for Vocational Education Research).

Kilpatrick, S., Bell, R. & Falk, I. (1999). The role of group learning in building social capital, Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 51, pp. 129–144.

Kretzmann, J. & McKnight, J. (1993) Building Communities from Inside Out: a path toward finding and mobilizing a community’s assets (Chicago, IL, ACTA Publications).

Krishna, A. & Uphoff, N. (1999). Mapping and Measuring Social Capital: a conceptual and empirical study of collective action for conserving and developing watersheds in Rajasthan, India, Social Capital Initiative Working Paper No. 13 (Washington, World Bank).

Lane, B. & Dorfman, D. (1997). Strengthening Community Networks: the basis for sustainable com-munity renewal (Portland, Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory).

Martinez-Fernandez, C. (1999). The network perspective in regional regeneration: an organic analysis of the Hunter Regional Network for Economic Development, paper presented at 23rd Annual Conference of the Australia and New Zealand Regional Sciences Association International, Newcastle, Australia, 19–22 September.

Maskell, P. (2000). Social capital, innovation and competitiveness, in: S. Baron, J. Field & T. Schuller (Eds) Social Capital: critical perspectives, pp. 111–23 (Oxford, Oxford University Press).

Maskell, P. & Malmberg, A. (1999). Localised learning and industrial competitiveness, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 23, pp. 167–168.

McClenaghan, P. (2000). Social capital: exploring the theoretical foundations of community develop-ment education, British Educational Research Journal, 26, pp. 565–582.

Miller, B. (1995). The role of rural schools in community development: policy issues and implications. Available at: http:;

Misztal, B. A. (1999) Informality: social theory and contemporary practice (London, Routledge).

Murphy, P., Pfister, N. & Wu, C. T. (1997). Industry Cluster Strategies for Regional Economic Development (Lismore, Australia, CARED, Southern Cross University).

Narayan, D. (1999). Bonds and Bridges: social capital and public policy, Policy Research Working Paper 2167 (Washington, World Bank).

Narayan, D. & Pritchett, L. (1997). Cents and Sociability: household income and social capital in rural Tanzania, Policy Research Working Paper 1–41 (Washington, World Bank).

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2001a). Well-being of Nations: the role of human and social capital (Paris, OECD).

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2001b). Cities and Regions in the New Learning Economy (Paris, OECD).

Porter, M. (1990) The Competitive Advantage of Nations (London, Macmillan).

Putnam, R. (1993) Making Democracy Work: civic traditions in modern Italy (Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press).

Putnam, R. (2000) Bowling Alone: the collapse and revival of American community (New York, Simon & Schuster).

Raffo, C. & Reeves, M. (2000). Youth transitions and social exclusion: developments in social capital theory, Journal of Youth Studies, 3, pp. 147–166.

Rosenfeld, S. (1995) Industrial Strength Strategies: regional business clusters and public policy (Washington, The Aspen Institute).

Schuller, T. (2001) The complementary roles of human and social capital, Isuma: Canadian Journal of Policy Research, 2, pp. 18–24.

Sommerlad, E., Duke, C. & McDonald, R. (1998). Collaboration in the Emerging World of ‘Universal Higher Education’ (Canberra, Higher Education Council).

Stanton-Salazar, R. (1998). Defensive network orientations as internalised oppression: how schools mediate the influence of social class on adolescent development, in: B. BIDDLE (Ed.) Social Class, Poverty & Education, vol. 3 Missouri Symposium on Research and Educational Policy (New York, Garland).

Uhlir, D. (1998). Internationalization, and institutional and regional change: restructing post-communist networks in the region of Lanskroun, Czech Republic, Regional Studies, 32, pp. 673–685.

Willms, J. (2001). Hypotheses about community effects on social outcomes, Isuma: Canadian Journal of Policy Research, 2, pp. 53–62.

Woolcock, M. (1999). Managing risk, shocks and opportunity in developing economies: the role of social capital (unpublished paper) (Washington DC, Development Research Group, World Bank).

Woolcock, M. (2000). Managing risk, shocks and opportunity in developing economies: the role of social capital, in: G. Ranis (Ed.) Dimensions of Development (New Haven, CT, Yale Center for International and Area Studies).

Woolcock, M. (2001). The place of social capital in understanding social and economic outcomes, Isuma: Canadian Journal of Policy Research, 2, pp. 11–17.

Woolcock, M. & Narayan, D. (2000). Social capital: implications for development theory, research and policy, World Bank Research Observer, 15, pp. 225–249.

World Bank. (1998). The Initiative on Defining, Monitoring and Measuring Social Capital: overview and program description, Social Capital Initiative Working Paper No. 1 (Washington, DC, World Bank Social Development Family Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development Network).

Zizek, S. (1997). Multiculturalism, or, the cultural logic of multinational capitalism, New Left Review, 225, pp. 28–51.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Aldim Aldim

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


E - ISSN : 2622-6103

KELOLA is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.>


Published by : PUSAT KAJIAN Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung

Flag Counter


View My Stats