God in dialogue with His creation

Andreas May(1*)

(1) University of Pretoria, South Africa, and Friedrich-List-Str. 66, D-59425 Unna, Germany
(*) Corresponding Author


Christian faith, theology and natural sciences are brought into conversation with each other to analyse different aspects of the dialogue between God and his creation. The methodological approach consists of bringing research results from theology and the natural sciences documented in current publications as well as philosophical considerations into a dialogue with the Christian faith. Furthermore, the chronological development is given special attention. Both philosophical considerations and physical observations show that this universe was created by a transcendent intelligent supreme being, the Christian God, and that it is very important for this supreme being to communicate with the intelligent living beings in this universe. God entered and continues to enter into an ever more intense and intimate dialogue with his creation in various ways, both in Earth history and evolution, and in the history of the people of Israel, as well as today in the Christian era. To remove all possible barriers and obstacles to dialogue, God himself became man in Jesus Christ. The incarnation of Jesus Christ is the culmination of the dialogue between God and his creation. The incarnation and resurrection of Jesus Christ had a very great impact on the triune God. God gives himself so much to the dialogue with his creation that he takes into his innermost being the human body of Jesus Christ, which is a part of his creation marked by time. At the end of time, all human beings who have chosen God will live eternally with each other and with the triune God in comprehensive and fulfilling communion. This all-encompassing and all-fulfilling dialogue of love will originate from the triune God and will fill and glorify the whole of creation. The article shows that dialogue is central to understanding the relationship between God and his creation. The intra-Trinitarian dialogue of love between the three persons of God is the starting point, model and goal of both creation and God's dialogue with his creation. Contribution: The synthesis of Christian faith, theology and natural sciences makes it possible to see more clearly how much God is in dialogue with his creation. This can help us to recognise more deeply God's love for his creation and especially for us humans, and to act from this insight.


Christology; dialogue; evolution; incarnation; theology and nature; Trinitarian God

Full Text:



Aguirre, A. (2001). Cold big-bang cosmology as a counterexample to several anthropic arguments. Physical Review D, 64, 83508. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.64.083508

Araújo, G. S. (2018). Miracles and natural law: Are they compatible? Journal of the Adventist Theological Society, 28(2), 120–138.

Barnes, L. A. (2015). The fine-tuning of nature’s laws. The New Atlantis, 47, 87–97.

Barnes, L. A. (2020). A reasonable little question: A formulation of the fine-tuning argument. Ergo, an Open Access Journal of Philosophy, 6(42), 1220–1257. https://doi.org/10.3998/ergo.12405314.0006.042

Benedict XVI. (2007). Encyclical letter spe salvi of the supreme pontiff Benedict XVI to the bishops, priests and deacons, men and women religious, and all the lay faithful on Christian hope. Vatican. Retrieved from https://www.vatican.va/content/benedict-xvi/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_ben-xvi_enc_20071130_spe-salvi.html

Benner, D. G. (2010). Opening to God: Lectio divina and life as prayer. Westmont: InterVarsity.

Blanco Sarto, P. (2018). La cena del Señor a la luz de los diálogos luterano-católicos. Estudios Eclesiásticos. Revista de Investigación e Información Teológica y Canónica, 93(365), 417–453.

Bradley, W. L. (2018). The fine tuning of the universe: Evidence for the existence of God? Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith, 70(3), 147–160.

Bridge, E. (2016). An audacious request: Abraham’s dialogue with God in Genesis 18. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, 40(3), 281–296. https://doi.org/10.1177/0309089216637143

Bussey, P. J. (2013). God as first cause – a review of the Kalam argument. Science & Christian Belief, 25, 17–35.

Cabal, T. (2014). Defending the resurrection of Jesus: Yesterday, today and forever. The Southern Baptist Journal of Theology, 18(4), 115–137.

Carvajal Blanco, J. C. (2011). La misión de la Palabra. Una lectura trasversal de Verbum Domini. Teología y Catequesis, 119, 69–109.

Chan, K.-Y., & Chan, M.-H. (2020). A discussion of Klass Landsman’s criticisms of the fine-tuning Argument. Theology and Science, 18(2), 279–289. https://doi.org/10.1080/14746700.2020.1755544

Chapman, A. D. (2009). Numbers of living species in Australia and the world (2nd ed.). Canberra, Australia.

Ciocan, T. C. (2020). The value of the soul in the religious views. Dialogo, 6(2), 233–244. https://doi.org/10.18638/dialogo.2020.6.2.21

Cobreros, P. (2016). Supervaluationism and the timeless solution to the foreknowledge problem. Scientia et Fides, 4(1), 61–75. https://doi.org/10.12775/SetF.2016.015

Conselice, C. J., Wilkinson, A., Duncan, K., & Mortlock, A. (2016). The evolution of galaxy number density at z < 8 and its implications. The Astrophysical Journal, 830(83), 1–17.

Copan, P., & Craig, W. L. (Eds.). (2019a). The Kalam cosmological argument, volume 1: Philosophical arguments for the finitude of the past. London: Bloomsbury Academic.

Copan, P., & Craig, W. L. (Eds.). (2019b). The Kalam cosmological argument, volume 2: Scientific evidence for the beginning of the universe. London: Bloomsbury Academic.

Derdziuk, A. (2016). Trinitarian paradigm for dialogue. Journal for Perspectives of Economic Political and Social Integration, 22(1–2), 125–139. https://doi.org/10.1515/pepsi-2016-0007

Diekemper, J. (2013). Eternity, knowledge, and freedom. Religious Studies, 49(1), 45–64. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0034412512000170

Dreyer, D. (2018). God in gesprek – ’n Dialogiese Christologie. Verbum et Ecclesia, 39(1), a1896. https://doi.org/10.4102/ve.v39i1.1896

Duffin, J. (2009). Medical miracles: Doctors, saints and healing in the modern world. New York: Oxford University Press.

Ehrman, T. P. (2020). Anthropogenesis and the soul. Scientia et Fides, 8(2), 173–193. https://doi.org/10.12775/SetF.2020.018

Everhart, D. T. (2021). Transcendent temporality. TheoLogica: An International Journal for Philosophy of Religion and Philosophical Theology, 5(1), 28–54. https://doi.org/10.14428/thl.v5i1.57883

Faber, E.-M. (2011). Einführung in die katholische Sakramentenlehre (3rd ed.). Darmstadt: WBG.

Fernández Fernández, A. (2015). «Yo no moriré». La vida después de la muerte. La escatología cristiana. Madrid: Palabra.

Forteza Salas, M. (2013). La inhabitación de la Trinidad en nosotros. In P. C. Teixeira (Ed.), El verbo se hizo historia... Orientaciones para la oración en el Año Jubilar Verbum Dei (pp. 119–132). Burgos: Monte Carmelo.

Fößel, T. P. (2017). Offenbare Auferstehung. Eine Studie zur Auferstehung Jesu Christi in offenbarungstheologischer Perspektive. Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh.

Friederich, S. (2017). Fine-tuning as old evidence, double counting, and the multiverse. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 31(4), 363–377. https://doi.org/10.1080/02698595.2019.1565214

Glass, D. H., & McCartney, M. (2014). Explaining and explaining away in science and religion. Theology and Science, 12(4), 338–361. https://doi.org/10.1080/14746700.2014.95439

Goetz, J. (2021). Theodicy, supreme providence, and semiclassical theism. Theology and Science, 19(1), 42–64. https://doi.org/10.1080/14746700.2020.1825195

Greene, B. (2011). The hidden reality: Parallel universes and the deep laws of the cosmos. New York: Knopf.

Guilherme, A. (2012). God as thou and prayer as dialogue: Martin Buber’s tools for reconciliation. Sophia, 51(3), 365–378. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11841-011-0282-0

Hackett, C., & McClendon, D. (2017). Christians remain world’s largest religious group, but they are declining in Europe. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/04/05/christians-remain-worlds-largest-religious-group-but-they-are-declining-in-europe/

Harrower, S. (2021). The dialogical self analogy for the godhead: Recasting the “God is a Person” debate. Scientia et Fides, 9(2), 91–113. https://doi.org/10.12775/SetF.2021.020

Hawking, S., & Mlodinow, L. (2010). The grand design. New York: Bantam Books.

Holland, R. A. (2012). God, time, and the incarnation. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock.

Jackelén, A. (2005). Time & eternity: The question of time in church, science and theology. Conshohocken, PA: West.

Joest, C. (2000). Der dreieine Gott und die Gemeinschaft der Menschen. Geist und Leben, 73(2), 132–137.

Kemp, K. W. (2020). God, evolution, and the body of Adam. Scientia et Fides, 8(2), 139–172. https://doi.org/10.12775/SetF.2020.017

Kim, E. (2010). Time, eternity, and the Trinity: A Trinitarian analogical understanding of time and eternity. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock.

Kojonen, E. V. R. (2019). Is classical science in conflict with belief in miracles? Some bridge-building between philosophical and theological positions. In R. J. Russell & J. M. Moritz (Eds.), God’s providence and randomness in nature. Scientific and theological perspectives (pp. 205–234). West Conshohocken, PA: Templeton Press.

Lennox, J. C. (2011). God and Stephen Hawking: Whose design is it anyway? Oxford: Lion Hudson.

Leung, K. (2022). Transcendentality and conversation: On the Trinity and ‘word‐exchange’. Modern Theology, 38, 796–816. https://doi.org/10.1111/moth.12803

Levering, M. (2004). Scripture and metaphysics: Aquinas and the renewal of Trinitarian theology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Levering, M. (2019). Did Jesus rise from the dead? Historical and theological reflections. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Libreria Editrice Vaticana. (1997). Catechism of the Catholic Church. Vatican. Retrieved from https://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/_INDEX.HTM

Loke, A. (2012). Is an uncaused beginning of the universe possible? Philosophia Christi, 14(2), 387–407. https://doi.org/10.5840/pc201214232

Loke, A. (2017). God and ultimate origins. A novel cosmological argument. Cham: Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

Loke, A. (2020). Investigating the resurrection of Jesus Christ: A new transdisciplinary approach. London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003037255

Loke, A. (2022a). A critical engagement with N.T. Wright on Natural Theology. TheoLogica: An International Journal for Philosophy of Religion and Philosophical Theology, 6(2). https://doi.org/10.14428/thl.v6i2.64263

Loke, A. (2022b). The teleological and Kalam cosmological arguments revisited. Cham: Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-94403-2

Lona, H. E. (2009). Kleine Hinführung zu Paulus (2nd ed.). Freiburg im Breisgau: Herder.

Lüke, U. (2016). Das Säugetier von Gottes Gnaden: Evolution, Bewusstsein, Freiheit (3rd ed.). Freiburg im Beisgau: Herder.

Manson, N. A. (2020). The multiverse: What philosophers and theologians get wrong. Theology and Science, 18(1), 31–45. https://doi.org/10.1080/14746700.2019.1710348

Martínez Sáez, J. (Ed.). (2014). Id y haced discípulos»: Seguimiento, Fraternidad, Misión. Burgos: Monte Carmelo.

May, A. (2020). Milliarden Jahre Evolution – Geschenk und Auftrag. In T. Dienberg & S. Winter (Eds.), Mit Sorge – in Hoffnung. Zu Impulsen aus der Enzyklika Laudato Si’ für eine Spiritualität im ökologischen Zeitalter (pp. 175–183). Regensburg: Friedrich Pustet.

May, A. (2021). What can Earth history and evolution tell about the creator of the universe? International Journal of Theology, Philosophy and Science, 5(8), 19–41. https://doi.org/10.26520/ijtps.

May, A. (2022). Since when have humans had a soul? HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies, 78(2), a7311. https://doi.org/10.4102/hts.v78i2.7311

McGrath, A. E. (2009). A fine-tuned universe: The quest for God in science and theology. London: Westminster John Knox Press.

Meyer, S. C. (2021). Return of the God hypothesis: Three scientific discoveries that reveal the mind behind the universe. New York: HarperOne.

Mora, C., Tittensor, D. P., Adl, S., Simpson, A. G. B., & Worm, B. (2011). How many species are there on earth and in the ocean? PLoS Biology, 9(8), e1001127. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001127

Moritz, J. M. (2018). Big Bang Cosmology and Christian Theology. In R. Gordon & J. Seckbach (Eds.), Theology and science: From Genesis to astrobiology (pp. 345–372). New Jersey: World Scientific.

Mullins, R. T. (2016). The end of the timeless God. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Mullins, R. T. (2021). Divine temporality and providential bodgery. TheoLogica: An International Journal for Philosophy of Religion and Philosophical Theology, 5(1), 147–174. https://doi.org/10.14428/thl.v4i3.54853

Nieminen, P., Loikkanen, J., Ryökäs, E., & Mustonen, A.-M. (2020). Nature of evidence in religion and natural science. Theology and Science, 18(3), 448–474. https://doi.org/10.1080/14746700.2020.1786221

Ohlig, K.-H. (2006). La muerte y su “superación” religiosa en la historia de la humanidad. Concilium, 318, 15–26.

Oviedo, L. (2020). Immanence and transcendence: On/off difference or gradation? Implications for science-and-theology. In M. Fuller, D. Evers, A. Runehov, K. W. Sæther, & B. Michollet (Eds.), Issues in science and theology: Nature – and beyond (pp. 19–29). Cham: Springer.

Padgett, A. G. (2000). God, eternity and the nature of time. Eugene, Oregon: Wipf and Stock.

Padgett, A. G. (2010). God and time: Relative timelessness reconsidered. In M. E. Stewart (Ed.), Science and religion in dialogue (pp. 884–892). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Padgett, A. G. (2011). The difference creation makes: Relative timelessness reconsidered. In C. Tapp & E. Runggaldier (Eds.), God, eternity, and time (pp. 117–125). Farnham: SurreyAshgate.

Pannenberg, W. (2002). The concept of miracle. Zygon®, 37(3), 759–762. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9744.00452

Parappally, J. (2014). Die christliche Erfahrung Gottes als Communio. Geist und Leben, 87(2), 193–198.

Peters, T. (2016). Time in eternity and eternity in time. In J. Baldwin (Ed.), Embracing the ivory tower and stained glass windows (pp. 3–12). Basel: Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

Plantinga, A. (2008). What is “intervention”? Theology and Science, 6(4), 369–401. https://doi.org/10.1080/14746700802396106

Pöhlmann, H. G. (1984). Gottesdenker. Prägende evangelische und katholische Theologen der Gegenwart. 12 Porträts. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Club.

Rabie-Boshoff, A. C., & Buitendag, J. (2020). Jesus: Divine relationality and suffering creation. HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies, 76(1), a6128. https://doi.org/10.4102/hts.v76i1.6128

Ratzinger, J. (2007). Eschatology: Death and eternal life (2nd ed.). Washington, D.C: The Catholic University of America Press.

Revol, F. (2020a). A critical approach to the concept of panentheism in the dialogue between science and theology: Distinguishing between divine transcendence and immanence in creation. In M. Fuller, D. Evers, A. Runehov, K. W. Sæther, & B. Michollet (Eds.), Issues in science and theology: Nature – and beyond (pp. 101–115). Cham: Springer.

Revol, F. (2020b). The concept of continuous creation part II: Toward a renewed and actualized concept. Zygon®, 55(1), 251–274. https://doi.org/10.1111/zygo.12583

Rödder, G., Ziegler, F.-K., & Falk, E. (1993). Wie viele Arten? Der Stand der Forschung gegen Ende des Jahrhunderts. Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 67(1–2), 215–222. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02985879

Rosenblum, P. M. (2020). Seeking purpose in creation and evolution: The agapic principle. Theology and Science, 18(1), 86–98. https://doi.org/10.1080/14746700.2019.1710352

Russell, R. J. (2012). Time in eternity: Pannenberg, physics, and eschatology in creative mutual interaction. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.

Sánchez-Cañizares, J. (2014). Whose design? Physical, philosophical and theological questions regarding Hawking and Mlodinow’s Grand Design. Scientia et Fides, 2(1), 231–241. https://doi.org/10.12775/SetF.2014.011

Saudek, D. (2011). Science and Eschatology in the Open Universe. Science & Christian Belief, 23, 133–157.

Sijuwade, J. (2022). A transformational incarnation. TheoLogica: An International Journal for Philosophy of Religion and Philosophical Theology, 7(1). https://doi.org/10.14428/thl.v7i1.64663

Siniscalchi, G. (2014). Fine-tuning, atheist criticism, and the fifth way. Theology and Science, 12(1), 64–77. https://doi.org/10.1080/14746700.2013.836890

Stenger, V. J. (2014). God and the multiverse: Humanity’s expanding view of the cosmos. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.

Stickelbroeck, M. (2017). Theismus und Trinitätsglaube. In G. Augustin, C. Schaller, & S. Śledziewski (Eds.), Der dreifaltige Gott: Christlicher Glaube im säkularen Zeitalter. Für Gerhard Kardinal Müller (pp. 304–323). Freiburg: Herder.

Suomala, K. R. (2004). Moses and God in dialogue. New York: Peter Lang.

Swinburne, R. (2004). The existence of God (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sydnor, J. P. (2018). God is not eternal, nor are we: On the blessedness of being in time. Process Studies, 47(1–2), 172–190.

Tabaczek, M. (2019). Vacuum Genesis oraz spontaniczne powstanie wszechświata z niczego a klasyczna koncepcja przyczynowości oraz stworzenia ex nihilo. Scientia et Fides, 7(1), 127–162. https://doi.org/10.12775/SetF.2019.007

Tegmark, M. (2014). Our mathematical universe: My quest for the ultimate nature of reality. New York: Knopf.

Tetens, H. (2015). Gott denken. Ein Versuch über rationale Theologie (4th ed.). Stuttgart: Reclam.

Tibi, D. (2010). Lectio divina. Gott begegnen in seinem Wort. Geist und Leben, 83(3), 222–234.

Toro Bedoya, C. M. (Ed.). (2011). Esbozo de unos ejercicios espirituales. Burgos: Monte Carmelo.

Toro Bedoya, C. M. (Ed.). (2012). Temario de espiritualidad Verbum Dei "vida y amor" y la escuela de apóstoles. Burgos: Monte Carmelo.

Tucker, R. (2014). Fine Tuning Mission to reach those influenced by Darwinism. Verbum et Ecclesia, 35(1), a891. https://doi.org/10.4102/ve.v35i1.891

van Niekerk, P., & Niemandt, N. (2019). The radical embodiment of God for a Christology of a new era. HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies, 75(1), 165–174. https://doi.org/10.4102/hts.v75i1.5633

Vanzini, M. (2015). La Croce di Cristo come dialogo tra Dio e l’uomo. In R. Díaz Dorronsoro & M. Vanzini (Eds.), Egli manifestò la sua gloria. Saggi teologici offerti al Prof. José Antonio Riestra in occasione del suo 70° genetliaco (pp. 175–193). Roma: Edusc.

Volek, P. (2019). Das Verständnis des zeitlosen Gottes. Scientia et Fides, 7(1), 111–126. https://doi.org/10.12775/SetF.2019.006

von Rintelen, K., Arida, E., & Häuser, C. (2017). A review of biodiversity-related issues and challenges in megadiverse Indonesia and other Southeast Asian countries. Research Ideas and Outcomes, 3, 20860. https://doi.org/10.3897/rio.3.e20860

Waller, J. (2019). Cosmological fine-tuning arguments: What (if anything) should we infer from the fine-tuning of our universe for life? London: Routledge.

Witte, M. (Ed.). (2004). Gott und Mensch im Dialog: Festschrift für Otto Kaiser zum 80. Geburtstag. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15575/kt.v5i1.20197


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Andreas May

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.