Bioconversion of Fermented Barley Waste by Black Soldier Fly Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera; Stratiomyidae)

Agus Dana Permana, Din Dzakamala Fafi Rohmatillah1, Ramadhani Eka Putra, Ucu Julita, Agus Susanto


Black Soldier Fly Larvae (BSFL), Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) are widely used as bioconverter agents for various organics waste, and BSF pupae are often used as fodder for poultry and fish, because the BSF pupae have a high protein content. This study focused on applying BSFL as a bioconversion agent of the fermented barley waste to convert it to larvae biomass. Prior to application, barley waste was fermented either using effective microorganisms-4 (EM4), leachate, and water for seven days. The fermented barley waste was applied as feeding material for BSFL at the rate of 100 mg/larvae/days. As control commercial chicken fed (CF) was applied as feeding material at a similar feeding rate. During this study, waste reduction index (WRI), and efficiency of digested feed (ECD) were calculated, and the protein content in the BSF prepupae was analyzed. The results of this study showed that BSFL fed with CF produces the shortest development time (27 days), and high consumption rate. BSFL fed with barley waste fermented with EM4 (BE) and Leachate (BL) produces a larval period of 31 and 30 days respectively, and statistically those were not significantly different from control. This study showed that treatments of BE and BL, produced a very high larval survival rates, 98.67% and 97.00% respectively, and those two treatments were not statistically different from the control (96.67%). Although the control treatment resulted in a higher WRI compared to the other treatments, but the ECD of BE and BL treatments were higher than the ECD of the control. From this study, it can be concluded that BSFL has a good ability to convert fermented barley waste as well as controls, and the prepupae has a high protein content (42%), so BSFL fed with fermented barley waste has the opportunity to be used as a fed for poultry and fish.


barley, bioconversion, biomass, efficiency, husks.

Full Text:



Aliyu, S. & Bala, M. (2011). Brewer's spent grain: A review of its potentials and applications. African Journal of Biotechnology, 103(3), 324-331.

Amin, F. R., Khalid, H., Zhang, H., Rahman, S. U., Zhang, R., Liu, G. & Chen, C. (2017). Pretreatment Methods of Lignocellilosic Biomass for Anaerobic Digestion. AMB Express, 7, 72.

Barragán-Fonseca, K. B. (2018). Flies Are What They Eat: Tailoring Nutrition of Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens L.) for Larval Biomass Production and Fitness. PhD thesis. Wageningen University, Wageningen.

Brennan, M., Hedley, P. E., Topp, C. F. E., Morris, J., Ramsay, L., Mitchell, S., Shepherd, T., Thomas, W. T. B. & Hoad, S. P. (2019). Developmentand Quality of Barley Husk AdhesionCorrelates With Changes in Caryopsis Cuticle Biosynthesisand Composition. Frontriers in Plant Science, 10, 672.

Chrisdiyanto, E., Erlista, G.P. & Rosyida, E. I. (2018). Pengaruh Pemberian Pakan Fermentasi Limbah Ampas Bir Terhadap Peningkatan Pertumbuhan Daging Sapi Potong. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Jurusan Pendidikan Biologi. ISBN 978-602-97298-3.

Chia, S. Y., Tanga, C. M., Osuga, I. M., Mohamed, S. A., Khamis, F. M., Salifu, D., Sevgan, S., Fiaboe, K. K. M., Niassy, S., van Loon, J .J. A., Dicke, M. & Ekesi, S. (2018). Effects of Waste Stream Combinations from Brewing Industry on Performance of Black Soldier Fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae). PeerJ 6:e5885.

Cullere, M., Tasoniero, G., Giaccone, V., Miotti-Scapin, R., Claeys, E., De Smet, E. & Dalle Zotte, A. (2016). Black Soldier Fly As Dietary Protein Source For Broiler Quails: Apparent Digestibility, Excreta Microbial Load, Feed Choice, Performance, Carcas and Meat Traits. Animal, 10(2), 1923-1930.

Diener, S., Zurbrügg, C. & Tockner, K. (2009). Conversion of Organic Material by Black Soldier Fly Larvae: Establishing Optimal Feeding Rates. London: SAGE.

Dobermann, D., Swift, J.A. & Field, L.M. (2017). Opportunities and hurdles of edible insects for food and feed. Nutrition Bulletin, 42(4), 293–308.

Dortmans, B.M.A., Diener, S., Verstappen, B.M. & Zurbrugg, C. (2017). Black Soldier Fly Biowaste Processing - A Step by Step Guide. Eawag : Swiss Federal Institut of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dubendorfm Switzerland.

Elwert, C., Knips, I. & Katz, P. (2010). A Novel Protein Source: Maggot meal of the Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) in Broiler Feed. In: Gierus M. Kluth H, Bulang M, Kluge H, editors. Tagung Schweine-und Geflügelernährung. Germany: Universität Halle-Wittenberg.

Gasco, L., Henry, M., Piccolo, G., Marono, S., Gai, F., Renna, M., Lussiana, C., Antonopoulou, E., Mola, P. & Chatzifotis, S. (2016). Tenebrio molitor Meal in Diets for European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) Juveniles: Growth Performance, Whole Body Composition And In Vivo Apparent Digestibility. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 220, 34–45.

Gobbi, P., Sánchez, A.M. & Santos, R. (2013). The Effects of Larval Diet on Adult Life- History Traits of the Black Soldier Fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae). European Journal Entomology, 110(3), 461–468.

Grant, K. R., Brennan, M. & Hoad, S. P. (2021). The Structure of the Barley Husk Influences its Resistance to Mechanical Stress. Frontiers in Plant Science, 11, 614334.

Gujral, H. S., Sharma, B. & Khatri, M. (2018). Influence of Replacing Wheat Bran With Barley Bran on Dough Rheology, Digestibility and Retrogradation Behavior of Chapatti, Food Chemistry 240: 1154-1160.

Hasan, H. A. & Dina, F. (2019). Cp-occurance od Different Insect Species in Oviposition Media of Black Soldier Fly, Hermentia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomydae. Serangga, 24(2), 1-4.

Henry, M., Gasco, L., Piccolo, G. & Fountoulaki, E. (2015). Review on The Use of Insects in the Diet of Farmed fish: Past And Future. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 203, 1–22.

Ji, Y. J., Liu, H. N., Kong, X. F., Blachier, F., Geng, M. M., Liu, Y. Y. & Yin, Y. L. (2016). Use of Insect Powder As a Source Of Dietary Protein In Early-Weaned Piglets. Journal of Animal Science, 94(3), 111–116.

Kelemu, S., Niassy, S., Torto, B., Fiaboe, K., Affognon, H., Tonnang, H., Maniania, N. K. & Ekesi, S. (2015). African Edible Insects for Food and Feed: Inventory, Diversity, Commonalities and Contribution to Food Security. Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, 1(2), 103–119.

Kim, W., Bae, S., Park, K., Lee, S., Choi, Y., Han, S. & Koh, Y. (2011). Biochemical Characterization of Digestive Enzymes in the Black Soldier Fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera:Stratiomyidae). Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, 14, 11-14.

Lima, U. A (2010. Materias-primas Dos Alimentos. Sao Paulo: Ed Blucher.

Liu, Z., Minor, M., Morel, P. C. H. & Rodriguez, A. J. N. (2018). Bioconversion of Three Organic Wastes by Black Soldier Fly (Diptera: Stratiomydae) Larvae. Environmental Entomology, 47(6), 1609-1617.

Lock, E. R, Arsiwalla, T. & Waagbø, R. (2015). Insect Larvae Meal As An Alternative Source Of Nutrients in The Diet of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Postsmolt. Aquaculture Nutrition, 22(6),1202–1213.

Lynch, K. M, Steffen, E. J. & Arendt, E.K. (2016). Brewers’ Spent Grain: a Review With an Emphasis on Food And Health. Review Article. Journal of the institute of brewing, 122(4), 553-568.

Makkar, H. P. S., Tran, G., Heuze, V. & Ankers, P. (2014). State of the Art on Use of Insects as Animal Feed. Animal Feed Science Technology, 197, 1–33 DOI

Manurung, R., Supriatna, A., Esyanti, R.E. & Putra, R.E. (2016). Bioconversion of Rice Straw by Black Soldier Fly Larvae (Hermetia illucnes): Optimal Feed Rate for Biomass Production. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 4(4), 1036-1041

Mathias, Thiago R.D.S., de Mello, Pedro P.M., Servulo. & Eliana F.C. (2014). Solid Waste in Brewing Process : A Review. Academic Journals, 5(1), 1-9.

Meneguz, M., Schiavone, A., Gai, F., Dama, A., Lussiana, C., Renna, M. & Gasco, L. (2018). Effect of Rearing Substrate On Growth Performance, Waste Reduction Efficiency and Chemical Composition of Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia Illucens) Larvae. Journal of Science Food Agriculture, 98, 5776-5784.

Moula, N., Scippo, M., Douny, C., Degand, G., Dawans, E., Cabaraux, J., Hornick, J., Medigo, R., Leroy, P., Francis, F. & Detilleux, J. (2018). Performances of Local Poultry Breed Fed Black Soldier Fly Larvae Reared on Horse Manure. Animal Nutrition, 4, 73-78.

Mussato, S. I., Dragone, G. & Rroberto, I.C. (2006). Brewers’ Spent Grain: Generation, Characteristics And Potential Applications. Journal of Cereal Science, 43, 1-14.

Myers, H. M., Tomberlin, J. K., Lambert, B. D. & Kattes, D. (2008). Development of Black Soldier Fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Larvae Fed Dairy Manure. Environmental Entomology, 37, 11-15.

Nguyen, T. T. X., Tomberlin, J. K. & Vanlaerhoven, S. (2013). Influence of Resources on Hermetia Illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Larval Development. Journal of Medical Entomology, 50(4), 898–906.

Nguyen, T. T. X., Tomberlin, J. K. & Vanlaerhoven, S. (2015). Ability of Black Soldier Fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Larvae to Recyle Food Waste. Environmental Entomology, 44, 406-410.

Ohkuma, M. (2003). Termite Symbiotic Systems: Efficient Bio-Recycling of Lignocellulose. Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 61(1), 1–9.

Renna, M., Schiavone, A., Gai, F., Dabbou, S., Lussiana, C., Malfatto, V., Prearo, M., Capucchio, M.T., Biasato, I., Biasibetti, E., De Marco, M., Brugiapaglia, A., Zoccarato, I. & Gasco, L. (2017). Evaluation of The Suitability of a Partially Defatted Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia Illucens L.) Larvae Meal as Ingredient For Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss Walbaum) Diets. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology, 8(1), 57.

Robertson, J. A., Ianson, K. J. A., Treimo, J., Faulds, C. B., Brocklehhurst, T.F., Eijsink, V.G.H. & Waldron, K.W. (2010). Profiling Brewers’ Spent Grain for Composition and Microbial Ecology at The Site of Production. Food Science and Technology, 43, 890-896.

Schiavone, A., De Marco, M., Martínez, S., Dabbou, S., Renna, M., Madrid, J., Hernandez, F., Rotolo, L., Costa, P., Gai, F. & Gasco, L. (2017). Nutritional Value of a Partially Defatted and Highly Defatted Black Soldier Fly Larvae (Hermetia illucens L.) Meal for Broiler Chickens: Apparent Nutrient Digestibility, Apparent Metabolizable Energy and Apparent Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology, 8(1), 51.

Scriber, J. M., & F. Slansky Jr., F. (1981). The Nutritional of Immature Insects. Annual Review of Entomology, 26, 183-211.

Simpson, S. J., & Simpson C. L. (1990). The Mechanisms of Nutritional Compensation By Phytophagous Insects, 111–160. In E. A. Bernays (ed.), Insect-plant interactions, vol. 2. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Spranghers, T., Ottoboni, M., Klootwijk, C., Ovyn, A., Deboosere, S., De Meulenaer, B., Michiels, J., Eeckhout, M., De Clercq, P. & De Smet, S. (2017). Nutritional Composition Of Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) Prepupae Reared on Different Organic Waste Substrates. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 97(8), 2594–2600.

Supriyatna A., & Putra R.E. (2017). Estimasi pertumbuhan larva lalat balck soldier (Hermatia illucens) dan penggunaan pakan jerami padi yang difermentasi dengan jamur P. chrysosporium. Jurnal Biodjati, 2(2), 159-166.

Tomberlin, J .K. & Sheppard, D.C. (2002). Factors Influencing Mating and Oviposition of Black Soldier Flies (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) in a Colony. Journal of Entomological Science, 37(4), 345–352.

Van Huis, A., Van Itterbeeck, J., Klunder, H., Mertens, E., Halloran, A., Muir, G. & Vantomme, P. (2013). Edible Insects: Future Prospects for Food and Feed Security. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, FAO Forestry, Paper 171.

Veldkamp, T. & Bosch, G. (2015). Insects: a protein-rich feed ingredient in pig and poultry diets. Animal Frontiers, 5, 45–50.

Zheng, L.Y., Hou, Y.F., Li, W., Yang, S., Li, Q. & Yu, Z. N. (2012). Biodiesel Production From Rice Straw and Restaurant Waste Employing Black Soldier Fly Assisted by Microbes. Energy, 47, 225-229

Wang, S., Dai, G., Haiping, Y. & Luo, Z. (2017). Lignocellulosic biomass pyrolysis mechanism: A State of the Art Review. Progress in Energy Combustion Science, 62, 33-86.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Jurnal Biodjati

Indexing By :



Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


View My Stats