Strategies of Combating Corruption in Nigeria: The Islamic Perspective

Usman Sambo, Babayo Sule


Corruption has become a pandemic and a moral burden that bedeviled the world. Corruption is a practice that permeates all societal segments, sectors, activities and it takes various shapes, forms, dimensions, classifications and manifestations. Nearly all countries of the world are affected by the endemic of corruption albeit, in different magnitude with some having lower incidence while others a high rate of occurrence. Corruption has constituted itself as a political and socioeconomic problem worldwide because it leads to misgovernance, deprivation, inequality and squander of scarce public resources which have the concomitant repercussions of poverty, insecurity, joblessness, hunger and malnutrition, poor healthcare services delivery and low quality education. The problem of corruption took a new dimension when it continuously defies various strategies and alternatives proffered by nation-states, international organisations and agencies. One of the outstanding measures that permanently proves workable is the Islamic model which forbids the practice of corruption and ties it with moral burden and spiritual integrity. Hence, this study presented an alternative model with reference to Nigeria as the area of study. The study utilised a conceptual descriptive approach where documented sources were consulted and analysed. The study discovered that despite the existence of various anti-graft agencies, corruption continues in Nigeria unabated which portrays the need for adopting a different approach and that has been provided as the Islamic perspective. The study recommends among several others that the Islamic ethics and morals of detesting corrupt practices and the accompanied sanctions should be integrated in the crusade against corruption.


Combating, Corruption, Islamic, Nigeria, Perspective, Strategies

Full Text:



Achebe, C. (2012). There was a country: A memoir. Penguin.

AFRICAN UNION. (2018). Fighting Against Corruption in Africa.

Ahmad, bin H. (2013). Sunan Ahmad: Hadith Collection. Darul Fajr.

Aiyede, E. R. (2008). The role of INEC, ICPC and EFCC in combating political corruption. International foundation for electoral system.

Al Nasa’i. (2014). Sunan Nasa’i: Hadith Collection. Darul Fajr.

Al Tirmidhi. (2011). Sunan Tirmidhi: Hadith Collection. Darul Fajr.

Alazzabi, W. Y. E., Mustafa, H., & Latiff, A. R. A. (2020). Corruption and control from the perspective of Islam. Journal of Financial Crime.

Alford, R. P. (2012). A broken windows theory of international corruption. Ohio St. LJ, 73, 1253.

Asobie, H. A. (2012). Conceptual, Theoretical and Empirical Issues on the Interface between Corruption, Governance And Development. Mohammed, Aluaigba and Kabir Eds. Cited Above.

Bailey, J. (2006). Corruption and democratic governability in Latin America: Issues of types, arenas, perceptions, and linkages. Unpublished Paper Delivered at the 2006 Meeting of the Latin American Studies Association, San Juan, Puerto Rico, 15–18.

Bakar, S. M. A., & Ghosh, R. N. (2014). Corruption, Good Governance and Economic Development: Contemporary Analysis and Case Studies (Vol. 28). World Scientific.

Balboa, J., & Medalla, E. M. (2006). Anti-corruption and governance: The Philippine experience. APEC Study Center Consortium Conference, 1–28.

Blundo, G., de-Sardan, J.-P. O., Arifari, N. B., & Alou, M. T. (2013). Everyday corruption and the state: Citizens and public officials in Africa. Zed Books Ltd.

Bukhari, A. (2010). Authentic Collection of Prophetic Tradition. Darul Fajri Lil Turath.

Campbell, J. (2020). Perceptions of Corruption in Nigeria Remains High, According to NGO. US: Council on Foreign Relations. NGO. on 5th

Chayes, S. (2015). Thieves of state: Why corruption threatens global security. WW Norton & Company.

Cheek, M. (2020). "Money Laundering Around the World”. Smart Search. Smartsearch.

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications.

Darami, A. (1990). Collected Hadith of Al Darami. Al Maktub Al Islami.

Darmalaksana, W. (2020). Studi Penggunaan Analisis Pendekatan Ilmu-ilmu Sosial dalam Penelitian Hadis Metode Syarah. Khazanah Sosial, 2(3), 155–166.

Dawud, A. (2015). Sunan Abu Dawud: Hadith Collection. Darul Fajr.

Dike, V. E. (2001). Democracy and political life in Nigeria. Ahmadu Bello University Press.

Dixit, A. (2018). Anti-corruption institutions: Some history and theory. In Institutions, governance and the control of corruption (pp. 15–49). Springer.

Édes, B. W. (2016). REGIONAL ANTI-CORRUPTION INITIATIVES IN ASIA. Routledge Handbook of Corruption in Asia.

Eguae-Obazee, G. A. (2014). The Effects of Corruption on the Inflow of Foreign Direct Investment into Ten Sub-Saharan African Countries: Using Ghana and Nigeria as Discussion Points. Wilmington University (Delaware).

Fisman, R., & Golden, M. A. (2017). Corruption: What everyone needs to know. Oxford University Press.

Girling, J. (1997). Corruption, capitalism and democracy (Vol. 4). Psychology Press.

Holmes, L. (2015). Corruption: a very short introduction (Vol. 426). Oxford University Press, USA.

Hope, K., & Chikulo, B. (1999). Corruption and development in Africa: Lessons from country case studies. Springer.

Hope Sr, K. R. (2017). Corruption and Governance in Africa: Swaziland, Kenya, Nigeria. Springer.

Hough, D. (2013). Corruption, anti-corruption and governance. Springer.

Human Rights Watch. (2019). Nigeria: Public Sector Corruption. Hrw.

Ibn Majah. (2016). Sunan Ibn Majah: Hadith Collection. Darul Fajr.

Ibn Qayyim, A. (2018). Patience and Gratitude. Ta Ha Publishers.

Igiebor, G. O. (2019). Political Corruption in Nigeria: Implications for Economic Development in the Fourth Republic. Journal of Developing Societies, 35(4), 493–513.

International Monetary Fund. (2020). Real GDP Growth: Annual Percent Change. IMF.

Iqbal, Z. (2002). Governance and Corruption: Can Islamic Societies and the West Learn from Each Other? by Zafar Iqbal and Mervyn K. Lewis. American Journal of Islam and Society, 19(2), 1–33.

Ivanyna, M., Mourmouras, A., & Rangazas, P. (2018). The Macroeconomics of Corruption. Springer Texts in Business and Economics.

Jain, A. K. (2001). Corruption: A review. Journal of Economic Surveys, 15(1), 71–121.

Jordan, D. C. (1999). Drug Politics: dirty money and democracies (Vol. 1). University of Oklahoma Press.

Kamal, M. H. (2019). "Fighting Corruption: An Islamic Perspective”.

New Straits Times. NST.

Katzarova, E. (2019). Global Anti-Corruption Talks in the 1970s and 1990s: The Story of Two Utopias. In The Social Construction of Global Corruption (pp. 213–234). Springer.

Knuckles, J. . (2006). A Study of Corruption’s Causes in Botswana and Nigeria. Unpublishedworks.

Kratcoski, P. C. (2018). Introduction: Overview of Major Types of Fraud and Corruption. Fraud and Corruption, 3–19.

Kuhlmann, M. (2020). Africa Could Gain $89 Billion Annually by Curbing Illicit Financial Flows.

Lambsdorff, J. G. (2007). The institutional economics of corruption and reform: Theory, evidence and policy. Cambridge university press.

Lewis, J. . (2020). Economic Impact of Cybercrime: At $600 Billion and Counting No Slowing Down.

Maddow, R. (2019). Blowout: Corrupted democracy, rogue state Russia, and the richest, most destructive industry on earth. Crown.

Mauro, P. (1998). Corruption: Causes, Consequences, and Agenda for Research. Journal of Finance And.

Mbaku, J. M. (2010). Corruption in Africa: Causes, consequences, and cleanups. Lexington Books.

Mevliyar, E. (2008). Corruption from the Islamic perspective. International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, 1(1).

Miller, S. (2016). Corruption and Anti-corruption in Policing--Philosophical and Ethical Issues. Springer.

Mohammed, U. (2013). Corruption in Nigeria: A challenge to sustainable development in the fourth republic. European Scientific Journal, 9(4), 118–137.

Muir, S., & Gupta, A. (2018). Rethinking the anthropology of corruption: An introduction to supplement 18. Current Anthropology, 59(S18), S4–S15.

National Bureau of Statistics/United Nations Office on Drugs and Crimes. (2019). Corruption in Nigeria: Patterns and Trends. Second Survey on Corruption as Experienced by the Population.

National Bureau of Statistics. (2019). Human Poverty Index in Nigeria.

Ogbeidi, M. M. (2012). Political leadership and corruption in Nigeria since 1960: A socio-economic analysis. Journal of Nigeria Studies, 1(2).

Ogundiya, I. S. (2009). Political corruption in Nigeria: Theoretical perspectives and some explanations. The Anthropologist, 11(4), 281–292.

Ogundiya, I. S. (2010). Corruption: The bane of democratic stability in Nigeria. Current Research Journal of Social Sciences, 2(4), 233–241.

Olarinmoye, O. O. (2008). Godfathers, political parties and electoral corruption in Nigeria. African Journal of Political Science and International Relations, 2(4), 66–73.

Oluyitan, F. E. (2016). Combatting Corruption at the Grassroots Level in Nigeria. Springer.

Osoba, S. O. (1996). Corruption in Nigeria: historical perspectives. Review of African Political Economy, 23(69), 371–386.

Page, M. T. (2018). New taxonomy for corruption in Nigeria. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

Philp, M. (2015). The definition of political corruption. Routledge Handbook on Political Corruption, 17–29.

Pierce, S. (2016). Moral Economies of Corruption. Duke University Press.

Ribadu, M. . (2013). Corruption and National Development in Nigeria. National Conference.

Rose-Ackerman, S. (1999). Political corruption and democracy. Conn. J. Int’l L., 14, 363.

Rose-Ackerman, S. (2013). Corruption: A study in political economy. Academic Press.

Rose-Ackerman, S., & Palifka, B. J. (2016). Corruption and government: Causes, consequences, and reform. Cambridge university press.

Rose, R., & Peiffer, C. (2018). Bad governance and corruption. Springer.

Rotberg, R. I. (2009a). Corruption, global security, and world order. Brookings Institution Press.

Rotberg, R. I. (2009b). How corruption compromises world peace and stability. Corruption, Global Security, and World Order, 1–26.

Rotberg, R. I. (2019). The corruption cure: How citizens and leaders can combat graft. Princeton University Press.

Rothstein, B. (2011). The quality of government: Corruption, social trust, and inequality in international perspective. University of Chicago Press.

Rowden, R., & Wang, J. (2020). The Global Crisis of Corruption. Global Financial Integrity. Gfintegrity.

Schweizer, P. (2018). Secret Empires: How the American Political Class Hides Corruption and Enriches Family and Friends. almohreraladbi.

Schweizer, P. (2020). Profiles in Corruption: Abuse of Power by America’s Progressive Elite. almohreraladbi.

Shehu, A. Y. (2004). Combating corruption in Nigeria‐bliss or bluster? Journal of Financial Crime.

Smith, D. J. (2008). A culture of corruption: Everyday deception and popular discontent in Nigeria. Princeton University Press.

Smith, D. J. (2014). Corruption complaints, inequality and ethnic grievances in post-Biafra Nigeria. Third World Quarterly, 35(5), 787–802.

Standing, G. (2016). The corruption of capitalism: Why rentiers thrive and work does not pay. Biteback Publishing.

Sule, B., Azizuddin, M., Sani, M., & Mat, B. (2017). Political party financing and corruption in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic: The case of 2015 General Elections. Arts Social Sciences Journal, 8(1), 276–298.

Sule, B., Azizuddin, M., Sani, M., & Mat, B. (2018). Impact of political party financing on integrity of 2015 General Election in Nigeria. Tamkang Journal of International Affairs, 22(2), 165–218.


Sule, B., Sani, M. A. M., & Mat, B. (2017). Independent National Electoral Commission and campaign financing monitoring in Nigeria: The 2015 general elections. Journal of International Studies, 13, 15–31.

Sule, B., Sani, M. A. M., & Mat, B. (2018a). Corruption and electoral process in Nigeria: examining the 2015 general election. Journal of Techno Social, 10(1).

Sule, B., Sani, M. A. M., & Mat, B. (2018b). Godfatherism and political party financing in Nigeria: Analysing the 2015 general election. Geografia-Malaysian Journal of Society and Space, 14(1).

Sule, B., & Tal, M. K. (2018). Impact of Money on Nigerian Politics: Exploring the General Elections in the Fourth Republic. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, Arts and Sciences, 5(2), 89–98.

Teets, J. C., & Chenoweth, E. (2009). To Bribe or to Bomb: Do Corruption and Terrorism Go Together? Corruption, Global Security, and World Order, 167–193.

The World Bank. (2020). The Fight Against Corruption: Taming Tigers and Swatting Flies.

Transparency International. (2020a). Corruption Perception Index. Transparency.

Transparency International. (2020b). CPI 2019 Global Highlights. Retrieved. Transparency.

Transparency International. (2020c). Exporting Corruption Progress Report 2020: Assessing Enforcement of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention. In Transparency International.

Uslaner, E. M. (2017). The historical roots of corruption: Mass education, economic inequality, and state capacity. Cambridge University Press.

Yadav, V., & Mukherjee, B. (2016). The politics of corruption in dictatorships. Cambridge University Press.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Usman Sambo and Babayo Sule

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 IJIK: International Journal of Islamic Khazanah has been indexed on:

Google ScholarDOAJ


 UIN Sunan Gunung Djati
Jalan Abdul Haris Nasution No.105, Cibiru, Kota Bandung, Jawa Barat, Indonesia
Handphone: +628993123454


Lisensi Creative Commons

IJIK are licensed under Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International

Flag Counter
View my Stats ( Click