Religious and Ethnic Prejudice as Problems for Creating Social Harmony in West Java

Dody S. Truna, Tatang Zakaria

Abstract


Artikel ini bertujuan untuk membahas faktor yang melatarbelakangi terjadinya prasangka agama dan etnis khususnya oleh kelompok agama dan suku mayoritas di Jawa Barat. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif dengan proses pengumpulan data melalui observasi, wawancara, dan kajian dokumen. Penelitian ini diperoleh temuan bahwa prasangka agama dan etnis di Jawa Barat dilakukan oleh segelintir orang dari kelompok mayoritas Islam dan suku Sunda terhadap kelompok minoritas Katolik dan etnis lain non-pribumi. Latar belakang terjadinya prasangka agama diawali oleh faktor individual pemeluk agama yang melahirkan sentimen anti agama non-mayoritas dan didukung fanatisme atas klaim kebenaran agama sendiri. Akibatnya, prasangka agama bergeser pada sentimen anti entis atau kesukuan karena kekhawatiran kaum mayoritas atas dominasi sumber daya terbatas oleh minoritas seperti politik dan ekonomi. Selain itu, dinamika politik nasional juga turut mempengaruhi tingginya diskriminasi agama dan etnis khususnya akibat polarisasi masyarakat di media sosial. Namun demikian, suku Sunda sebagai etnis mayoritas di Jawa Barat memiliki falsafah hidup kuat sebagai modal sosial proses integrasi sosial yakni silih asih, silih asah, silih asuh. Falsafah hidup ini merupakan bagian dari proses kampanye moderasi beragama dengan memanifestasikan salah satu indikator moderasi, mengadopsi budaya lokal dalam kehidupan keberagamaan. Alhasil, upaya perwujudan harmoni sosial untuk pencegahan disintegrasi bangsa menemukan solusi tepat. Mengadaptasi budaya-budaya lokal khas suku bangsa dalam kehidupan beragama selama tidak melanggar ajaran agama mesti dilakukan untuk masa depan Indonesia.

Keywords


prejudice; culture; Islam; Sundanese; politicization of religion

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abrams, D. (2010). Processes of prejudices: Theory, evidence and intervention. Equalities and Human Rights Commission.

Abrams, D., & Houston, D. M. (2006). Equality, diversity and prejudice in britain: results from the 2005 national survey: report for the cabinet office equalities review october 2006.

Affan, H. (2016). “Pemerasan gereja” di Bandung: ’Mereka minta Rp200 juta. BBC Indonesia. https://www.bbc.com/indonesia/berita_indonesia/2016/06/160606_indonesia_komnasham_gereja_diperas

Agama, K. (2019). Moderasi Beragama. Badan Litbang dan Diklat Kementerian Agama RI. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004

Arianto, B. (2019). Memahami Front Pembela Islam: Gerakan Aksi Atau Negara Islam. Communitarian, 2(1).

Baidhawy, Z. (2005). Pendidikan agama berwawasan Multikultural. Erlangga.

Berger, P. L. (2002). Secularization and de-secularization. Religions in the Modern World: Traditions and Transformations, 336.

Blair, I. V. (2001). Implicit stereotypes and prejudice. Cognitive Social Psychology: The Princeton Symposium on the Legacy and Future of Social Cognition, 359–374.

Blumer, H. (1957). Collective behavior. Bobbs-Merrill Company Incorporated.

BPS. (2015). Mengulik Data Suku di Indonesia. Badan Pusat Statistik. https://www.bps.go.id/news/2015/11/18/127/mengulik-data-suku-di-indonesia.html.

Brannen, J. (2017). Mixing methods: Qualitative and quantitative research. Routledge.

Bruce, S. (2002). God is dead: Secularization in the West (Vol. 3). Blackwell Oxford.

Bunt, G. R. (2000). Virtually Islamic: Computer-mediated communication and cyber Islamic environments. University of Wales Press.

Bunt, G. R. (2009). iMuslims: Rewiring the house of Islam. Univ of North Carolina Press.

Cohen, A. (2003). Promoting freedom and democracy: fighting the war of ideas against Islamic terrorism. Comparative Strategy, 22(3), 207–221.

Coser, L. A. (1957). Social conflict and the theory of social change. The British Journal of Sociology, 8(3), 197–207.

Coser, L. A. (1998). The functions of social conflict (Vol. 9). Routledge.

Crandall, C. S., & Eshleman, A. (2003). A justification-suppression model of the expression and experience of prejudice. Psychological Bulletin, 129(3), 414.

Cronin, A. K. (2015). ISIS is not a terrorist group: Why counterterrorism won’t stop the latest jihadist threat. Foreign Aff., 94, 87.

Currie, S. E. (2012). Keith A. Roberts, and David Yamane: Religion in Sociological Perspective. Springer.

Denzin, N. K., & Ryan, K. E. (2007). Qualitative methodology (including focus groups). The SAGE Handbook of Social Science Methodology, 3, 578–594.

Dovidio, J. F., & Jones, J. M. (2019). Prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination. Advanced Social Psychology: The State of the Science, 2.

Duckitt, J. H. (1992). The social psychology of prejudice. Praeger New York.

Durkheim, E. (2011). Durkheim on Religion: A selection of readings with bibliographies and introductory remarks. ISD LLC.

Esposito, J. L. (2010). The future of Islam. Oxford University Press.

Esses, V. M., Haddock, G., & Zanna, M. P. (1993). Values, stereotypes, and emotions as determinants of intergroup attitudes. In Affect, cognition and stereotyping (pp. 137–166). Elsevier.

Fealy, G. (2004). Islamic radicalism in Indonesia: The faltering revival? Southeast Asian Affairs, 2004(1), 104–121.

Feldman, D. B., & Crandall, C. S. (2007). Dimensions of mental illness stigma: What about mental illness causes social rejection? Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 26(2), 137–154.

Fershtman, C., & Gneezy, U. (2001). Discrimination in a segmented society: An experimental approach. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 116(1), 351–377.

Ghifari, S. Al. (2021). BREAKING NEWS Masjid Jemaah Ahmadiyah di Garut Disegel, Jemaah Menolak, Bupati Pasang Badan. Tribun Jabar.com. https://jabar.tribunnews.com/2021/05/07/mesjid-jemaah-ahmadiyah-di-garut-disegel-bupati-rudy-gunawan-kegiatan-ahmadiyah-di-garut-dilarang

Greenfield, A. (2017). Radical technologies: The design of everyday life. Verso Books.

Han, S., & Nasir, K. M. (2015). Digital culture and religion in Asia. Routledge.

Haryani, E. (2019). Intoleransi dan Resistensi Masyarakat Terhadap Kemajemukan: Studi Kasus Kerukunan Beragama di Kota Bogor, Jawa Barat. Harmoni.

Haryanto, S. (2019). The Sociological Context of Religion in Indonesia. In Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, Volume 30 (pp. 67–102). Brill.

Hasani, I. (2011). Radikalisme Agama di Jabodetabek & Jawa Barat. Publikasi SETARA Institute.

Hasenclever, A., & Rittberger, V. (2000). Does religion make a difference? Theoretical approaches to the impact of faith on political conflict. Millennium, 29(3), 641–674.

Haynes, J. (2020). Politics of religion: A survey. Routledge.

Hayward, K. (2012). GLOBALIZATION, MIGRATION AND SOCIAL TRANSFORMATION: IRELAND IN EUROPE AND THE WORLD. Taylor & Francis.

Hecht, M. L. (1998). Communicating prejudice. Sage Publications.

Hendropuspito, D. (2000). Sosiologi Agama, Yogyakarta: Kanisius, Cet. Ke-16.

Husain, M. N., Zuada, L. H., & Anggraini, D. (2021). Political Primordialism Post-Reformation in Indonesia. ISSHE 2020: Proceedings of the First International Seminar Social Science, Humanities and Education, ISSHE 2020, 25 November 2020, Kendari, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia, 313.

Ikhsan, Okm. F., Islam, R., Khamis, K. A., & Sunjay, A. (2020). Impact of digital economic liberalization and capitalization in the era of industrial revolution 4.0: case study in Indonesia. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 18(2), 290.

Iqbal, A. M. (2016). Varied Impacts of Globalization on Religion in a Contemporary Society. Religio, 6(2), 207–229.

Iqbal, A. M. (2016). WHEN RELIGION MEETS THE INTERNET. Jurnal Komunikasi Islam, 6(01).

Jabali, F. (n.d.). Strategi Politik Sukarmadji Maridjan Kartosoewirjo Dalam Mendirikan Negara Islam Indonesia (Nii) Sebelum Dan Sesudah Kemerdekaan. Fakultas Adab dan Humaniora UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta.

Jamaludin, A. N. (2018). Konflik dan integrasi pendirian rumah ibadah di kota bekasi. Jurnal Socio-Politica, 8(2), 227–238.

Johnson, A. G. (2006). Privilege, power, and difference.

Junaedi, E. (2019). Inilah Moderasi Beragama Perspektif Kemenag. Harmoni, 18(2), 182–186.

Kassin, S. M., & Kiechel, K. L. (1996). The social psychology of false confessions: Compliance, internalization, and confabulation. Psychological Science, 7(3), 125–128.

Kelman, H. C. (1997). Group processes in the resolution of international conflicts: Experiences from the Israeli–Palestinian case. American Psychologist, 52(3), 212.

Kerbo, H. R., & Coleman, J. W. (2006). Social problems.

Kinnvall, C. (2004). Globalization and religious nationalism: Self, identity, and the search for ontological security. Political Psychology, 25(5), 741–767.

Küng, H., & Bowden, J. S. (2007). Islam: Past, present and future. Oneworld Oxford.

Kurtz, D. V. (2018). Political anthropology: power and paradigms. Routledge.

Kusumowardhani, R. P. A., Fathurrohman, O., & Ahmad, A. (2013). Identitas Sosial, Fundamentalisme, dan Prasangka terhadap Pemeluk Agama yang Berbeda: Perspektif Psikologis. Harmoni, 12(1), 18–29.

Kuswandi. (2019). SETARA Institute Sebut Jawa Barat Terbanyak Kasus Intoleransi. Jawapos.com. https://www.jawapos.com/nasional/24/11/2019/setara-institute-sebut-jawa-barat-terbanyak-kasus-intoleransi/

Lampe, I., & Anriani, H. B. (2016). Stereotipe, Prasangka dan Dinamika Antaretnik. Jurnal Penelitian Pers Dan Komunikasi Pembangunan, 20(1), 19–32.

Lestari, P. (2018). Analisa Wacana Kritis Fenomena MCA (Muslim Cyber Army) Pasca Aksi Bela Islam di Instagram. FIKRAH, 6(1), 25–48.

Liliweri, A. (2005). Prasangka dan Konflik; Komunikasi Lintas Budaya Masyarakat Multikultur. LKiS Pelangi Aksara.

Lipkus, I. M., & Siegler, I. C. (1993). The belief in a just world and perceptions of discrimination. The Journal of Psychology, 127(4), 465–474.

Little, D. (2006). Religion, conflict and peace. Case W. Res. J. Int’l L., 38, 95.

Marx, K., & Engels, F. (2012). On religion. Courier Corporation.

Matzat, U. (2010). Reducing problems of sociability in online communities: Integrating online communication with offline interaction. American Behavioral Scientist, 53(8), 1170–1193.

Murphy, A. M. (1999). Indonesia and globalization. Asian Perspective, 229–259.

Mustari, M., & Rahman, M. T. (2012). Pengantar Metode Penelitian. Laksbang Pressindo.

Nashori, F., & Nurjannah, N. (2015). Prasangka sosial terhadap umat kristiani pada muslim minoritas yang tinggal di Indonesia Timur. Jurnal Ilmiah Psikologi Terapan, 3(2), 383–400.

Pamungkas, N. L., Widiyantoro, A., & Wicaksono, M. A. (2020). Relasi Politik dan Isu Agama: Dinamika Politik PKS dan Aksi Bela Islam pada Pemilu Serentak 2019. Sospol: Jurnal Sosial Politik, 6(1), 70–84.

Parekh, B. (2001). Rethinking multiculturalism: Cultural diversity and political theory. Ethnicities, 1(1), 109–115.

Puspitasari, L., & Ishii, K. (2016). Digital divides and mobile Internet in Indonesia: Impact of smartphones. Telematics and Informatics, 33(2), 472–483.

Rahman, M. T. (2010). Pluralisme Politik. WAWASAN: Jurnal Ilmiah Agama Dan Sosial Budaya, 34(1), 1–13.

Rahman, M. T., & Setia, P. (2021). Pluralism in the Light of Islam. Jurnal Iman Dan Spiritualitas, 1(2).

Reychler, L. (2010). Peacemaking, peacekeeping, and peacebuilding. In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of International Studies.

Rizqi, A. R. (2020). Pancasila in the Primordialism and Modernism Intersections. International Conference on Agriculture, Social Sciences, Education, Technology and Health (ICASSETH 2019), 24–28.

Roberts, K. A., & Yamane, D. (2015). Religion in sociological perspective. Sage Publications.

Robinson, K. (2014). Citizenship, identity and difference in Indonesia. RIMA: Review of Indonesian and Malaysian Affairs, 48(1), 5–34.

Rutland, A., Killen, M., & Abrams, D. (2010). A new social-cognitive developmental perspective on prejudice: The interplay between morality and group identity. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(3), 279–291.

Ryder, P., & Vogeley, J. (2018). Telling the impact investment story through digital media: An Indonesian case study. Communication Research and Practice, 4(4), 375–395.

Sachril, A. (2019). Setara Sebut Jabar Daerah Paling Intoleran dalam 12 Tahun Terakhir. Detik.com. https://news.detik.com/berita/d-4796408/setara-sebut-jabar-daerah-paling-intoleran-dalam-12-tahun-terakhir

Schwartz, H., & Jacobs, J. (1979). Qualitative sociology. Simon and Schuster.

Sears, D. O., Freedman, J. L., Peplau, L. A., & Adryanto, M. (1985). Psikologi sosial. Penerbit Erlangga.

Setia, P. (2020). Islamic-buzzer dan hoaks: Propaganda khilafah oleh eks HTI Kota Bandung di Jawa Barat. UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung.

Setia, P. (2021a). Kampanye Moderasi Beragama Melalui Media Online: Studi Kasus Harakatuna Media. In P. Setia & R. Rosyad (Eds.), Kampanye Moderasi Beragama: Dari Tradisional Menuju Digital (I, pp. 167–180). Prodi P2 Studi Agama-Agama UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung.

Setia, P. (2021b). Membumikan Khilafah di Indonesia: Strategi Mobilisasi Opini Publik oleh Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia (HTI) di Media Sosial. Journal of Society and Development, 1(2), 33–45.

Setia, P., Rosyad, R., Dilawati, R., Resita, A., & Imron, H. M. (2021). Kampanye Moderasi Beragama: Dari Tradisional Menuju Digital (P. Setia & R. Rosyad, Eds.). Prodi S2 Studi Agama-Agama UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung.

Stanley, M. (2014). Qualitative descriptive: A very good place to start. In Qualitative research methodologies for occupational science and therapy (pp. 37–52). Routledge.

Stephan, W. G., & Stephan, C. W. (1996). Predicting prejudice. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 20(3-4), 409–426.

Suharto, B. (2021). Moderasi Beragama; Dari Indonesia Untuk Dunia. Lkis Pelangi Aksara.

Sujadi, S. (2005). Book Review: Islam, Antara Negara Agama dan Negara Sipil. Al-Jami’ah: Journal of Islamic Studies, 43(2), 501–509.

Sujoko, A. (2019). Komunikasi Politik Gerakan# 2019GantiPresiden. Jurnal Komunikasi Islam, 9(1), 36–57.

Tilly, C., & Wood, L. J. (2015). Social Movements 1768-2012. Routledge.

Ting-Toomey, S., & Chung, L. C. (2005). Understanding intercultural communication. Oxford University Press New York.

Wach, J. (2019). Sociology of religion (Vol. 16). Routledge.

Walker, I., & Smith, H. J. (2002). Fifty years of relative deprivation research. Relative Deprivation: Specification, Development, and Integration, 1–9.

Wedemeyer, C., & Doniger, W. (2010). Hermeneutics, Politics, and the History of Religions: The Contested Legacies of Joachim Wach and Mircea Eliade. Oxford University Press.

Wibisono, M. Y. (2015). Agama, kekerasan dan pluralisme dalam Islam. Kalam, 9(2), 187–214.

Wibisono, M. Y. (2020). Sosiologi Agama. Prodi P2 Studi Agama-Agama UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung.

Zanden, J. W. Vander. (1984). Social Psychology, New York: Randen House. Inc.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15575/jt.v5i1.13803

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats

________________________________________________________________________

E - ISSN : 2615-5028


TEMALI is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.>

 

Published by : Jurusan Sosiologi Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung

Sponsored by : Ikatan Sosiologi Indonesia (ISI)

 

Flag Counter