Studi Tingkat Ploidi pada Lili (Lilium sp.) Hasil Kultur Antera Melalui Penghitungan Jumlah Kloroplas dan Kromosom

Dewi Pramanik, Nisa Istiqomah, Liberty Chaidir

Abstract


Lili (Lilium sp.) termasuk famili Liliaceae, merupakan tanaman hias yang memiliki nilai ekonomi tinggi karena permintaan konsumen terus meningkat. Permintaan varietas tanaman yang seragam menuntut pengembangan hibrida F1. Perakitan tanaman hibrida dapat dihasilkan melalui pembentukan tanaman haploid. Salah satu metode untuk memproduksi tanaman haploid adalah dengan kultur antera.  Pengecekan tanaman hasil kultur antera dapat dilakukan dengan penghitungan  jumlah kloroplas dan jumlah kromosom, namun untuk lili hasil belum diperoleh informasi mengenai korelasi antara jumlah kloroplas pada sel penjaga stomata dengan jumlah kromosom, sehingga tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengatahui korelasi antara jumlah kloroplas dengan jumlah kromosom serta mengetahui tingkat ploidi pada regeneran lili hasil kultur antera. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Kultur Jaringan Balai Penelitian Tanaman Hias (BALITHI) Cianjur dari Januari-Juni 2016.  Terdapat 5 nomor lili yang diuji tingkat ploidinya.  Setiap nomor terdiri dari 4 ulangan, setiap ulangan ada 4 botol dan  masing-masing botol terdiri dari 3 planlet. Metode analisis yang digunakan yaitu statistik sederhana rata-rata dan standar eror dan dikorelasikan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan planlet haploid terbanyak ditemukan pada nomor 2015.1.1 kelompok Longiflorum dengan jumlah 26,67% sedangkan planlet haploid yang jumlahnya paling sedikit ditemukan pada nomor 2015.S2.3 kelompok Oriental dengan jumlah 11,11%. Metode kultur antera dapat menghasilkan planlet haploid namun pada Lilium sp. persentase keberhasilannya masih rendah. Tidak diperoleh korelasi antara jumlah kloroplas dan kromosom. Penelitian lebih lanjut terkait tingkat ploidi tanaman lili dan pengujian jumlah kromosom dengan menggunakan flowcytometer perlu dilakukan. 

 

Lily (Lilium sp.), Liliaceae family, is an ornamental plant that has a high economic value as consumer demand continues to rise. The uniformity of crop varieties requires the development of F1 hybrids that can be generated through the formation of haploid plants. A method for producing haploid plant is by anther culture. Evaluation of anther culture can be done by counting the number of chloroplasts and the number of chromosomes in the regenerants.  However, lilies yet obtained information on the correlation between the numbers of chloroplasts in stomatal guard cells with chromosome numbers. Therefore, the purpose of this research aimed to know the correlation between the number of chloroplasts and chromosomes and to determine ploidy level in the regenerants of lily from anther culture. This research was conducted at Tissue Culture Laboratory of Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute (IOCRI), Cianjur from January to June 2016. There were 5 numbers of lilies regenerant from anther culture that evaluate for ploidy level test.  Each number has four replications, each replication contained four bottles, and each bottle has three plantlets. The statistical analysis used statistical descriptive with average, standard error and correlation. The results showed, haploid plantlets were observed in 2015.1.1 plantlets from Longiflorum group with 26,67% while least number of haploid plantlets is found in 2015.S2.3 plantlets from Oriental group (11,11%).  The method of anther culture is able to produce haploid plantlets but the success rate was low in Lilium sp. There were no correlation between the number of chloroplasts and chromosomes.  Further studies related to the ploidy level of lilies from anther culture and the evaluation of chromosomes number by using flow cytometry requires to develop haploid plant of Lily.


Keywords


kloroplas; kromosom; Lilium longiflorum; lili Oriental; lili Asiatik; tingkat ploidi

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.15575/864

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