Adaptation of Religion and Local Wisdom in Global Environmental Issues in Indonesia

Syafwan Rozi, Zulfan Taufik

Abstract


This study focuses on how the adaptation efforts and survival strategies of local communities in Indonesia to the non-natural pressure on nature and the value of their local wisdom in protecting and preserving the environment. Anthropological, ecological, and related literature on local communities are used as a review and analytical framework. The selected local communities are the Mentawai tribe, the slopes of Mount Merapi, and the Balinese in Indonesia. These three case studies show that the adaptations and strategies carried out by local communities are diverse and have different knowledge implications. The Mentawai tribe in maintaining the tradition of arat sabulungan and Balinese in revitalizing Wariga can adjust and adapt well when faced with natural ecological cycles and non-natural penetration. That is because its application is more flexible, practical, and intellectual than putting forward the device of beliefs and myths. While the case of the local community on the slopes of Merapi, which has local significance in the form of cosmological teachings in disaster management, tends to prioritize faith that is rooted more in myth than knowledge related to the objective world. Therefore, when this set of knowledge in local wisdom struggles to surpass marginalized status, the two cases of the Mentawai and Balinese communities can become persuasive and adaptive. In contrast, the local community on the slopes of Merapi is more challenging to adapt. The study also recommends that it is time for traditional knowledge originating from local wisdom in Indonesia to be adapted, modified and used as an essential resource in managing contemporary environmental issues effectively and collaboratively.

Keywords


Adaptation; Environment; Local wisdom; Religion.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adidjontro, G. J. (1995). Bali, Jakarta’s Colony: Social and Ecological Impact’s of Jakarta-based Conglomerate in Bali Touristic Industry. Perth: ARC Murdoch University Press.

Agatha, A. (2016). Traditional Wisdom in Land Use and Resource Management Among the Lugbara of Uganda. SAGE Open, 6(3), 215824401666456. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244016664562

Arhem, N. (2014). Forests , Spirits , and High Modernist Development. Sweden: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis.

Asian Development Bank. (2001). Project Compilation Report on the Biodiversity Conservation Project in Flores and Siberut (Loan 1187-INO[SF]) in Indonesia.

Assiamah E, Y, Muller, K, Domfeh, K. A. (2018). Transdisciplinary approach to natural resource governance research: a conceptual paper. Management of Environmental Quality : An International Journal Article Information :, 29(1), 15–33. https://doi.org/10.1108 MEQ 0420160034

Atan, Ruhaya , Md. Mahmudul Alam, Said, Jamaliah , Zamri, Mohamed. (2004). The impacts of environmental, social, and governance factors on firm performance: Panel study of Malaysian companies. Management of Environmental Quality : An International Journal, 15(6), 622–628. https://doi.org/10.1108/1477783041056070

Baedhowi. (2008). Kearifan Lokal Kosmologi Kejawan: Studi Post Colonial Pandangan Kosmologi Romo Yoso dan Implikasinya bagi Warga Tutup Ngisor-Magelang. In Agama dan Kearifan Lokal dalam Tantangan Zaman. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Berger, P. L. (1996). Sacred canopy: Elements of a sociological theory of religione. UK: Open Road Media.

Binsbergen, W. M. J. (2009). Expressions of traditional wisdom: What Africa can teach the world today. Bulletin Des Séances de l’Académie Royale Des Sciences d’Outre-Mer, 55, 281–305.

Bowie, F. (2001). The antroplogy of Religion: an Introduction. UK: Blackwell Publishers.

Capra, F. (1982). The turning point: Science, society, and the rising culture. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Bantam Books.

Chang, W. C. (2011a). Rethinking resource identification and utilization: The reconstruction of indigenous ethnoecological knowledge in Fata’an Wetland, Taiwan. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, 22(2), 187–199. https://doi.org/10.1108/14777831111113374

Chang, W. C. (2011b). Rethinking resource identification and utilization The reconstruction of indigenous. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, 22(2), 187–199. https://doi.org/10.1108/14777831111113374

Chiotinis, N. (2006). The request of sustainability and architecture as cultural paradigm. Management of Environmental Quality : An International Journal, 17(5), 593–598. https://doi.org/https:// doi.org/10.1108/14777830610684558

Condominas, G. (1994). We have eaten the forest: the story of a Montagnard village in the Central Highlands of Vietnam. New York: Kodansha Globe.

Dłuzewska, A. (2008). Direct and indirect impact of the tourism industry on drylands: The example of Southern Tunisia. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, 19(6), 661–669. https://doi.org/10.1108/14777830810904894

Dove, M. R. (2006). Indigenous People and Environmental Politics. Annual Review of Anthropology, 35(1), 191–208. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.anthro.35.081705.123235

Dwija, B. (2016). Peranan Wariga Bali Pada Tanaman Untuk Upacara Adat dan Agama.

Eindhoven, M. (2007). Penjajah Baru? Identitas, Rerpresentasi dan Pemerintahan di Kepulauan Mentawai Pasca Orde Baru. In Politik Lokal di Indonesia (p. 91). Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia.

Eindhoven, M. (2009). The influence of history and politics on the environmental future of the Mentawai Archipelago. Asia-Pacific Forum 44, 55–81.

Eliade, M. (1959). The Secred and the Profan, The Nature of Religion. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World Inc.

Geertz, C. (1973). The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books, Ins, Publisher.

Ghazali, M. I. (2008). Pasag Merapi: Kebijakan Lokal Manageman Disaster, Pola Penanganan Darurat Letusan Merapi 2006. In Agama dan Kearifan Lokal dalam Tantangan Zaman (p. 213).

Ginaya, G. (2018). The Balinese calendar system: From its epistemological perspective to axiological practices. International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Culture, 4(3), 24–37.

Glossanto, K. (2019). Sabulungan Dalam Tegangan Identitas Budaya : Kajian atas Religi Orang Mentawai di Siberut Selatan. Universitas Sanata Dharma Yogyakarta.

Haba, J. (2007). Revitalisasi Kearifan Lokal: Studi Resolusi Konflik di Kalimantan Barat, Maluku dan Poso. Jakarta: ICIP dan Eropean Commision.

Hatley, B. (2007). Theatre and Local Cultural Revival after the 2006 Yogyakarta. Masyarakat Indonesia, Majalah Ilmu-Ilmu Sosial Indonesia, 32(2), 47–56.

Hiwasaki, L., Luna, E., Syamsidik, & Marcal, J. A. (2015). Local and indigenous knowledge on climate-related hazards of coastal and small island communities in Southeast Asia. Climatic Change, 128(1–2), 35–56. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-014-1288-8

Iskandar, J. (2009). Ekologi Manusia dan Pembangunan berkelanjutan. Bandung: Program Studi Ilmu Lingkungan Universitas Padjajaran.

Iskandar, J., & Ellen, R. . (2004). Development of Sustainable Cultural Tourism in an Indigenous Community: A Case Study of Western Java, Indonesia. Bandung: University of Padjadjaran Press.

Joshi, L., & Sunaryo. (2003). Peranan Pengetahuan Ekologi Lokal dalam Sistem Agroforestri. Bogor: World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Southeast Asia Regional Office, Indonesia.

Kurnianingsih, A. (2008). Simulacra Bali: Traditional Ambiguity of Bali People. Yogyakarta: Insist Press.

Kusumasari, B., & Alam, Q. (2012). Local wisdom-based disaster recovery model in Indonesia. Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, 21(3), 351–369. https://doi.org/10.1108/09653561211234525

Laksono, P. (1985). Persepsi Setempat dan Nasional Mengenai Bencana Alam, sebuah Desa di Gunung Merapi. In Peranan Kebudayaan Tradisional. Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia.

Lansing, S. J. (2006). Perfect Order: Recognizing Complexity in Bali. Princeton, NJ: Pinceton University Press.

Malefijt, W. H. (1995). Religion Studies. Mineapolis: Fortress Press.

National Development Planning Agency. (2006). Preliminary Damage and Loss Assessment: Yogyakarta and Central Java Natural Disaster. Jakarta: National Development Planning Agency.

National Development Planning Ageny. (2008). Report on Monitoring and Evaluation of the Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Processes After Earthquake in Yogyakarta and Central Java Provinces. Yogyakarta.

Nguyen, Q. D. (2019). Complementarity between humans and nature: Adaptive local knowledge in a protected area of northern Thailand. Environmental Development, 30(February), 89–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envdev.2019.03.001

Persoon, G. (1989). Beyond Dreaming: Environmental planning for man and nature on Siberut (West Sumatra, Indonesia). In Mentawai: Identitaet und Wandel auf indonesischen Ausseninseln (pp. 199–224). Bremen: Ver- oeffentlichungen aud dem Uebersee-Museum Bremen, Reihen C, Deutsche Geo- graphische Blaetter, N.F., Band 5.

Persoon, G. (2006). Religion and Ethnic Identity of the Mentawaians on Siberut (West Sumatera). In Hinduism in Modern Indonesia (p. 114). London, and New York: Routledge and Curzon.

Persoon, G. A., Schefold, R., De Roos, E., & Marschall, W. (2002). Bibliography On The Islands Off The West Coast Of Ssumatra (1984-2002). Indonesia and the Malay World. https://doi.org/10.1080/1363981022000064410

Pichard, M. (1996). Bali: Cultural Turism and Touristic Culture. Singapore: Archipelago Press.

Rappaport, R. A. (1967). Ritual Regulation of Environmental Relations among a New Guinea People. Ethnology, 6(1), 17–30. https://doi.org/10.2307/3772735

Rappaport, R. A. (1979). Ecology, meaning, and religion. Richmond: North Atlantic Books.

Schefold, R. (1973). Religious Conceptions on Siberut, Mentawai. Sumatra Research Bulletin (Berita Kajian Sumatera), 2(1), 12–24.

Schefold, R. (1992). Shamans on Siberut: mediators between the worlds. In Mentawai Shaman, Keeper of the Rain For est: Man, Nature, and Spirits in remote Indonesia (pp. 105–117). New York: NY.: Aperture.

Schefold, R. (2002). Mentawaians. In Encyclopedia of World Cultures Supplement (pp. 207–217). New York: Gale Group & Thomson Learning.

Schulte Nordholt, H., & van Klinken, G. (2007). Renegotiating Boundaries: Local Politics in Post-Suharto Indonesia. In KITLV Prrss. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004260436_002

Shaw, R., Pulhin, J. M., & Pereira, J. J. (2010). “Chapter 1 Climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction: An Asian perspective” In Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction: An Asian Perspective. In Community, Environment and Disaster Risk Management (Vol. 5, pp. 349–372). https://doi.org/10.1108/S2040-7262(2010)5

Sobirin. (2011). Kearifan Lokal dan Perubahan Iklim. Kompas.

Sonny Keraf. (2010). Environmental Ethics. Jakarta: Kompas Publisher.

Sponsel, L. E. (2011). Religion and Environment: Exploring Spiritual Ecology. Religion and Society, 1(1), 131–145. https://doi.org/10.3167/arrs.2010.010109

Statistics Centre Bureau. (2008). Bantul in Figures 2008. Yogyakarta: BPS Press.

Sudana, O., Mahardika, O., & Dharmaadi, I. P. A. (2019). Mobile Note Application for Bendesa Adat at Bali. Scientific Journal of Informatics, 6(2), 160–169. https://doi.org/10.15294/sji.v6i2.19705

Sudarsana, I. K. (2017). Konsep Pelestarian Lingkungan Dalam Upacara Tumpek Wariga Sebagai Media Pendidikan Bagi Masyarakat Hindu Bali. Religious: Jurnal Studi Agama-Agama Dan Lintas Budaya, 2(1), 1–7.

Thompson, H. (1998). Cultural Sensitivity of Tourism Development in Bali. In Tourism Resources, Impact and planning (p. 21). Hamilton: University of Waikato.

Tulius, J. (2012). Family Stories: Oral Tradition, Memories of the Past, and Contemporary Conflicts over Land in Mentawai – Indonesia proefschrift. In Universiteit Leiden (Vol. 18). https://doi.org/10.1016/0197-4556(91)90120-y

UNDP. (2007). Human Development Report 2007/2008 Fighting Climate Change: Human Solidarity in a Divided World. NY, USA: UNDP.

Uy, N., & Shaw, R. (2010). No Title. In Chapter 16 Climate change adaptation in ASEAN: Actions and challenges (pp. 349–368). https://doi.org/10.1108/S2040-7262(2010)0000004022

Verbos, A. K., & Humphries, M. T. (2015). Indigenous wisdom and the prme: Inclusion or illusion? Journal of Management Development, 34(1), 90–100. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMD-01-2013-0016

Vicker, A. (1996). Bali: A. Paradise Created. California: Periplus Edition.

Wall, A. de. (1968). Religion and Culture. New York: Mac Millan.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15575/rjsalb.v4i3.9593

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Syafwan Rozi, Zulfan Taufik

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Department of Religious Studies Faculty of Ushuluddin Building 3rd Floor

Jl. Raya A.H. Nasution No. 105 Bandung, 40614,

Tel: (022) 7802275

Fax: (022) 780-3936

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Religious: Jurnal Studi Agama-Agama dan Lintas Budaya is Indexed By:

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Lihat Statistik Religious View MyStat

 

Lisensi Creative Commons
RELIGIOUS: JURNAL AGAMA DAN LINTAS BUDAYA disebarluaskan di bawah Lisensi Creative Commons Atribusi-BerbagiSerupa 4.0 Internasional.