Accessibility to E-Commerce Websites for People with Disability in Indonesia

Hanny Hafiar(1*), Syauqy Lukman(2), Yanti Setianti(3), Priyo Subekti(4), Kholidil Amin(5)

(1) Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia
(2) Australian National University, Australia
(3) Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia
(4) Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia
(5) Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


Using a website has become a primary method for delivering information, doing promotion, and marketing activities. E-commerce business people acknowledged the importance of developing a reliable website to reach the market through the internet, as part of e-service, especially in a country with a large market share like Indonesia. Unfortunately, not every e-commerce web designer is aware of the website accessibility criteria, the lack of awareness creates barriers for persons with disabilities to access e-commerce websites, as buyers and sellers. The accessibility gap of those website limits the ability of persons with disabilities to optimize the presence of e-commerce as an economic opportunity. We need to overcome the barriers to create an inclusive society in Indonesia. This paper aims to provide an overview of the accessibility of e-commerce websites in Indonesia, to find the common web accessibility issues, classified them comparatively into several tiers, type of issues, and then calculates the correlation of total issues with the number of visitors. This study analyzes 39 e-commerce websites. We evaluate based on Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0, using an automated tool called "aXe". The study shows evidence of various accessibility issues of e-commerce websites in Indonesia, emphasizing the necessity of web designers to pay more attention to accessibility for users with disabilities. This study also provides several recommendations to website accessibility as part of e-service quality.



e-commerce; website accessibility; e-service quality, evaluation tool, users with disabilities

Full Text:



Acosta-Vargas, P., Acosta, T., & Lujan-Mora, S. (2018a). Challenges to Assess Accessibility in Higher Education Websites: A Comparative Study of Latin America Universities. IEEE Access, 6, 36500–36508.

Acosta-Vargas, P., Acosta, T., & Lujan-Mora, S. (2018b). Framework for Accessibility Evaluation of Hospital Websites. 2018 International Conference on EDemocracy & EGovernment (ICEDEG), 9–15.

Acosta-Vargas, P., Antonio Salvador-Ullauri, L., & Lujan-Mora, S. (2019). A Heuristic Method to Evaluate Web Accessibility for Users With Low Vision. IEEE Access, 7, 125634–125648.

Acosta-Vargas, P., Luján-Mora, S., Acosta, T., & Salvador-Ullauri, L. (2018). Toward a Combined Method for Evaluation of Web Accessibility (pp. 602–613).

Acosta, T., Acosta-Vargas, P., & Lujan-Mora, S. (2018). Accessibility of eGovernment Services in Latin America. 5th International Conference on EDemocracy and EGovernment, ICEDEG 2018.

Akgul, Y. (2017). The most violated WCAG 1.0 guidelines by the developers of university websites in Turkey. 2017 12th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies (CISTI), 1–7.

Alshamari, M. (2016). Accessibility Evaluation of Arabic E-Commerce Web Sites Using Automated Tools. Journal of Software Engineering and Applications, 09(09), 439–451.

Arief, M., Rissanen, S., & Saranto, K. (2020). Effectiveness of web accessibility policy implementation in online healthcare information. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 270, 1108–1112.

Arini, F. D. (2020). How Accessible the University Websites in Indonesia for People with Disabilities? IJDS Indonesian Journal of Disability Studies, 7(2), 164–169.

Badan Pusat Statistik. (2021). Hasil Sensus Penduduk 2020.

Baker, S. M., Stephens, D. L., & Hill, R. P. (2002). How can retailers enhance accessibility: giving consumers with visual impairments a voice in the marketplace. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 9(4), 227–239.

Bose, R., & Jürgensen, H. (2014). Accessibility of E-Commerce Websites for Vision-Impaired Persons (pp. 121–128).

Darmaputra, I. G. B. N. E., Wijaya, S. S., & Ayu, M. A. (2017). Evaluating the accessibility of provinces’ e-government websites in Indonesia. 2017 5th International Conference on Cyber and IT Service Management, CITSM 2017.

Egeham, L. (2021). Jokowi Sebut Pengangguran di Indonesia Hampir 10 Juta Akibat Covid-19. Merdeka.

Forsythe, S. M., & Shi, B. (2003). Consumer patronage and risk perceptions in Internet shopping. Journal of Business Research, 56(11), 867–875.

Frazão, T., & Duarte, C. (2020). Comparing accessibility evaluation plug-ins. Proceedings of the 17th International Web for All Conference, W4A 2020.

Gambino, O., Pirrone, R., & Giorgio, F. Di. (2016). Accessibility of the Italian institutional web pages: a survey on the compliance of the Italian public administration web pages to the Stanca Act and its 22 technical requirements for web accessibility. Universal Access in the Information Society, 15(2), 305–312.

Gonçalves, R., Rocha, T., Martins, J., Branco, F., & Au-Yong-Oliveira, M. (2018). Evaluation of e-commerce websites accessibility and usability: an e-commerce platform analysis with the inclusion of blind users. Universal Access in the Information Society, 17(3), 567–583.

Goodrich, K., & Ramsey, R. (2012). Are consumers with disabilities receiving the services they need? Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 19(1), 88–97.

Gounaris, S., Dimitriadis, S., & Stathakopoulos, V. (2010). An examination of the effects of service quality and satisfaction on customers’ behavioral intentions in e‐shopping. Journal of Services Marketing, 24(2), 142–156.

Groff, J. S. (2013). Technology-rich innovative learning environments. In OCED CERI Innovative Learning Environment Project 2013 (Vol. 230, pp. 1–30).

Hackett, S., & Parmanto, B. (2005). A longitudinal evaluation of accessibility: higher education web sites. Internet Research, 15(3), 281–294.

Hamid, S., Bawany, N. Z., & Zahoor, K. (2020). Assessing Ecommerce Websites: Usability and Accessibility Study. 2020 International Conference on Advanced Computer Science and Information Systems (ICACSIS), 199–204.

Hussain, M., Ahsan, K., Iqbal, S., Nadeem, A., & Sarim, M. (2016). Assisting Disabled Persons in Online Shopping: A Knowledge- Based Process Model. Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences, 12, 23–31.

iPrice. (2021). Peta E‑Commerce Indonesia. Https://Iprice.Co.Id/.

Ismail, A., & Kuppusamy, K. S. (2018). Accessibility of Indian universities’ homepages: An exploratory study. Journal of King Saud University - Computer and Information Sciences, 30(2), 268–278.

Ismail, A., & Kuppusamy, K. S. (2019). Web accessibility investigation and identification of major issues of higher education websites with statistical measures: A case study of college websites. Journal of King Saud University - Computer and Information Sciences, xxxx.

Ismail, A., Kuppusamy, K. S., & Nengroo, A. S. (2018a). Multi-tool accessibility assessment of government department websites:a case-study with JKGAD. Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, 13(6), 504–516.

Ismail, A., Kuppusamy, K. S., & Nengroo, A. S. (2018b). Multi-tool accessibility assessment of government department websites:a case-study with JKGAD. Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, 13(6), 504–516.

Khalaf Ahmad, A. M., & Ali Al-Zu’bi, H. (2011). E-banking Functionality and Outcomes of Customer Satisfaction: An Empirical Investigation. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 3(1).

Król, K., & Zdonek, D. (2020). Local Government Website Accessibility—Evidence from Poland. Administrative Sciences, 10(2), 22.

Kumari, P., & Verma., S. (2020). Website Accessibility Evaluation of National Institutes under the DEPWD Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment. Library Philosophy and Practice, 4578, 1–11.

Li, S. H., Yen, D. C., Lu, W. H., & Lin, T. L. (2012). Migrating from WCAG 1.0 to WCAG 2.0 - A comparative study based on Web Content Accessibility Guidelines in Taiwan. Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 87–96.

Mathew Martin, P. J., & Rabindranath, M. (2017). Digital Inclusion for Access to Information: A Study on Banking and Financial Institutions in India. SAGE Open, 7(3), 215824401772047.

Ministry of Social. (2021). Negara, Disabilitas, dan Relawan di Tengah Pandemi. Kemensos.

Olalere, A., & Lazar, J. (2011). Accessibility of U.S. federal government home pages: Section 508 compliance and site accessibility statements. Government Information Quarterly, 28(3), 303–309.

Prasetio, A., Sari, P. K., Sharif, O. O., & Sofyan, E. (2016). Analyzing traffic source impact on returning visitors ratio in information provider website. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 128, 012013.

Rita, P., Oliveira, T., & Farisa, A. (2019). The impact of e-service quality and customer satisfaction on customer behavior in online shopping. Heliyon, 5(10), e02690.

Saputra, P. B. (2021). Marketplace Rangkul Pelaku UMKM Disabilitas: Biar Lebih Percaya Diri. Radar Solo Jawa Pos.

Sims, G. (2016). Accessibility Prioritization: Laying the Foundation with a Strategic Plan [Part 1].

Situmorang, A. P. (2021). Menaker Ida: Ada 247.000 Penyandang Disabilitas Menganggur. Merdeka.

Sohaib, O., & Kang, K. (2016). Assessing Web Content Accessibility of E-Commerce Websites for People with Disabilities. In J. Gołuchowski, M. Pańkowska, C. Barry, M. Lang, H. Linger, & C. Schneider (Eds.), Information Systems Development: Complexity in Information Systems Development (ISD2016 Proceedings) (pp. 466–475). Katowice, Poland: University of Economics in Katowice.

Sohaib, O., Naderpour, M., & Hussain, W. (2018). SaaS E-Commerce Platforms Web Accessibility Evaluation. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE), 1–7.

Tontini, G. (2016). Identifying opportunities for improvement in online shopping sites. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 31, 228–238.

Vigo, M., Arrue, M., Brajnik, G., Lomuscio, R., & Abascal, J. (2007). Quantitative metrics for measuring web accessibility. Proceedings of the 2007 International Cross-Disciplinary Conference on Web Accessibility (W4A) - W4A ’07, 99.

Vigo, M., Brown, J., & Conway, V. (2013). Benchmarking web accessibility evaluation tools. Proceedings of the 10th International Cross-Disciplinary Conference on Web Accessibility - W4A ’13, 1.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Hanny Hafiar, Syauqy Lukman, Yanti Setianti, Priyo Subekti, Kholidil Amin

Creative Commons License

Communicatus: Jurnal Ilmu Komunikasi is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stat View MyStat