The Relevance of Positive Education Concept for Pesantren in Indonesia

Moh Maqbul Mawardi(1*), Fida Ruhiyah(2)

(1) Institut Dirosat Islamiah Al-Amien Prenduan, Indonesia
(2) Master of Education Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia, Australia
(*) Corresponding Author


Studies on positive education that integrates traditional education with happiness and well-being is increasing rapidly. Unlike previous studies that were conducted in context of the Western world, the study aims to examine the relevance of special positive education to the education system in Indonesia particularly at pesantren. The research uses a qualitative approach with a case study design examining the concept of positive education offered by Seligman and its relevance to the education system at pesantren. The results show that the positive education program was designed at pesantren to teach well-being and achievement. Its implementation consists of several stages: teaching, embedding, and living positive education. The education system at pesantren is carried out in a curriculum namely the academic curriculum and the hidden curriculum. The hidden curriculum becomes a medium for transformation of santri character, values, morals, resilience, and the meaning of life based on religious values. There is a relevance relationship between the education system offered in positive education and the education system applied at pesantren. Pesantren in fact have implemented the principles offered by positive education although they have not taught specifically in one material about well-being, happiness and resilience as programmed in the implementation of positive education.


Islamic Boarding School Education, Positive Education, Relevance

Full Text:



Alharbi, R., Alsuhaibani, K., Almarshad, A., & Alyahya, A. (2019). Depression and Anxiety Among High School Student at Qassim Region. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 8(2), 504–510.

Armenta, C. N., Fritz, M. M., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2017). Functions of Positive Emotions: Gratitude as a Motivator of Self-Improvement and Positive Change. Emotion Review, 9(3), 183–190.

Aulia, F. (2015). Aplikasi Psikologi Positif dalam Konteks Sekolah. Seminar Psikologi Dan Kemanusiaan, 120–124. Retrieved from

Biggs, S., & Haapala, I. (2021). Intergenerational Commensality: A Critical Discussion on Non‐Familial Age Groups Eating Together. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(15).

Bolte, A., Goschke, T., & Kuhl, J. (2003). Emotion and Intuition: Effects of Positive and Negative Mood on Implicit Judgments of Semantic Coherence. Psychological Science, 14(5), 416–421.

Boyd, C. P., Kostanski, M., Gullone, E., Ollendick, T. H., & Shek, D. T. (2000). Prevalence of Anxiety and Depression in Australian Adolescents: Comparisons with Worldwide Data. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 161(4), 479–492. 00221320009596726

Bronk, K. C., Hill, P. L., Lapsley, D. K., Talib, T. L., & Finch, H. (2009). Purpose, Hope, and Life Satisfaction in Three Age Groups. Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(6), 500–510.

Chilton, G., Gerber, N., Councill, T., & Dreyer, M. (2015). I Followed the Butterflies: Poetry of Positive Emotions in Art Therapy Research. Cogent Arts and Humanities, 2(1).

Coulombe, S., Hardy, K., & Goldfarb, R. (2020). Promoting Wellbeing through Positive Education: A Critical Review and Proposed Social Ecological Approach. Theory and Research in Education, 18(3), 295–321.

Danesi, G. (2012). Pleasures and Stress of Eating Alone and Eating Together among French And German Young Adults. Menu: the Journal of Eating and Hospitality Research, 1, 77-91. Retrieved from serval:BIB_34E57A3F87E4. P001/REF.pdf

Darmayanti, N., & Daulay, N. (2020). Pengaruh Pelatihan Manajemen Stres terhadap Kebahagiaan Santri di Pesantren. Gadjah Mada Journal of Professional Psychology (GamaJPP), 6(2), 128.

Delle Fave, A., Brdar, I., Freire, T., Vella-Brodrick, D., & Wissing, M. P. (2011). The Eudaimonic and Hedonic Components of Happiness: Qualitative and Quantitative Findings. Social Indicators Research, 100(2), 185–207.

Desiningrum, D. R., Indriana, Y., & Suparno. (2019). Positive Emotion, Engagement and Meaning af Life of The Elderly in Pesantren (Islamic Boarding School). Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development, 10(3), 923–928.

Diener, E., Sandvik, E., & Pavot, W. (1991). Happiness is the Frequency, Not the Intensity, of Positive Versus Negative Affect. In: Strack, F., editor. Subjective well-being: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. In Oxford. Pergamon Press.

Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The New Psychology of Success. New York: Random House Publishing Group.

Estrada, C. A., Isen, A. M., & Young, M. J. (1994). Positive Affect Improves Creative Problem Solving And Influences Reported Source of Practice Satisfaction in Physicians. Motivation and Emotion, 18(4).

Fredrickson, B L. (2001). The Role of Positive Emotions in Positive Psychology. The Broaden-And-Build Theory of Positive Emotions. The American Psychologist, 56(3), 218–226.

Fredrickson, Barbara L. (1998). What Good Are Positive Emotions? Review of General Psychology : Journal of Division 1, of the American Psychological Association, 2(3), 300–319.

Fredrickson, Barbara L. (2012). Gratitude, Like Other Positive Emotions, Broadens and Builds. In The Psychology of Gratitude (Vol. 9780195150). Oxford University Press.

Fredrickson, Barbara L, & Branigan, C. (2005). Positive Emotions Broaden the Scope of Attention and Thought‐Action Repertoires. Cognition and Emotion, 19(3), 313–332.

Frigerio, A., Pesenti, S., Molteni, M., Snider, J., & Battaglia, M. (2001). Depressive Symptoms as Measured by The CDI in A Population of Northern Italian Children. European Psychiatry : The Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists, 16(1), 33–37.

Gable, S. L., & Reis, H. T. (2010). Chapter 4 - Good News! Capitalizing on Positive Events in an Interpersonal Context. In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 42, pp. 195–257). Academic Press.

Gazali, M. (2013). Optimalisasi Peran Lembaga Pendidikan Untuk Mencerdaskan Bangsa. Al-Ta’dib, 6(1), 126–136.

Gumilang, R., & Nurcholis, A. (2018). Peran Pondok Pesantren dalam Pembentukan Karakter Santri. Jurnal Comm-Edu, 1(3), 14–19.

Halliday, A. J., Kern, M. L., Garrett, D. K., & Turnbull, D. A. (2019). The Student Voice in Well-Being: A Case Study of Participatory Action Research In Positive Education. Educational Action Research, 27(2), 173–196. 09650792.2018.1436079

Hardoyo, H. (2009). Kurikulum Tersembunyi Pondok Modern Darussalam Gontor. At-Ta’dib, 4(2), 191–208.

Haryanto, Wahyuningsih, H. D., & Nadiroh, S. (2015). Sistem Deteksi Gangguan Depresi Pada Anak-Anak Dan Remaja. Jurnal Ilmiah Teknik Industri, 14(2), 142–152.

Hidayat, R., Habibi, A., Saad, M. R. M., Mukminin, A., & Idris, W. I. bin W. (2018). Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of PERMA for Indonesian Students in Mathematics Education Programmes. Pedagogika, 132(4), 147–165.

Hill, P. L., Burrow, A. L., O’Dell, A. C., & Thornton, M. A. (2010). Classifying Adolescents’ Conceptions of Purpose in Life. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 5(6), 466–473.

Huang, J., Wang, C., & Wan, X. (2022). Influence of Eating Together on Brain Activation And Hedonic Evaluation in Response to Foods. Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience, 22(5), 1145–1156.

Isen, A. M., Rosenzweig, A. S., & Young, M. J. (1991). The Influence of Positive Affect on Clinical Problem Solving. Medical Decision Making : An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making, 11(3), 221–227.

Lee, M. N. (2017). Youth Engagement in Meaningful Activities and Happiness: A Comparative Study of Chinese Undergraduates from Taiwan and Malaysia. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 25(1), 445–460. Retrieved from

Lewinsohn, P. M., Rohde, P., Seeley, J. R., & Fischer, S. A. (1993). Age-Cohort Changes in the Lifetime Occurrence of Depression and Other Mental Disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102(1), 110–120.

Madeson, M. (2021). Seligman’s PERMA+ Model Explained: A Theory of Wellbeing. Retrieved from

Marovelli, B. (2019). Cooking and Eating Together in London: Food Sharing Initiatives as Collective Spaces of Encounter. Geoforum, 99, 190–201. j.geoforum.2018.09.006

Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook. Sage.

Muhopilah, P., Gamayanti, W., & Kurniadewi, E. (2018). Hubungan Kualitas Puasa dan Kebahagiaan Santri Pondok Pesantren Al-Ihsan. Jurnal Psikologi Islam Dan Budaya, 1(1), 53–66.

Muliadi, R., & Hidayat, B. (2022). a Systematic Literature Review: Happiness of Santri in Pesantren. Psikis : Jurnal Psikologi Islami, 8(1), 63–76. psikis.v8i1.11521

Muttaqin, J. (2021). Overcoming Challenges of Education Sector in Indonesia Through Positive Psychology. Buletin Psikologi, 29(1), 14. buletinpsikologi.53038

Niemiec, C. P., & Ryan, R. M. (2009). Autonomy, Competence, and Relatedness in The Classroom:Applying Self-Determination Theory to Educational Practice. Theory and Research in Education, 7(2), 133–144.

Noble, T., & McGrath, H. (2015). PROSPER: A New Framework for Positive Education. Psychology of Well-Being, 5(1), 1–17.

Nofiaturrahmah, F. (2014). Metode Pendidikan Karakter di Pesantren. Pendidikan Agama Islam, XI(1), 201–216.

Norrish, J. M., Williams, P., & Connor, M. O. (2013). An Applied Framework for Positive Education. International Journal of Wellbeing, 3(2), 147–161. ijw.v3i2.2

Oyeniyi, O., Bain, S., & Furgerson, K. (2021). Stress Factors Experienced by International Students While Attending a South Texas university. Research in Higher Education Journal, 30, 1–8. Retrieved from

Post, S. G. (2005). Altuism, happiness, and health: it’s good to be good. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 12(2), 66–77.

Rowe, G., Hirsh, J. B., & Anderson, A. K. (2007). Positive Affect Increases the Breadth of Attentional Selection. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(1), 383–388.

Rowland, B. C., Mohebbi, M., Kelly, A. B., Benstead, M. L., Herde, J. A., Clancy, E. M., Bailey, J. A., Hallam, B., Sharkey, P., Horner, R., & Toumbourou, J. W. (2022). School Influences on Adolescent Depression: A 6-Year Longitudinal Study Amongst Catholic, Government and Independent Schools, in Victoria, Australia. Journal of Religion and Health, 1–21.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On Happiness and Human Potentials: A Review of Research on Hedonic and Eudaimonic Well-Being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 141–166.

Sandholm, D., Simonsen, J., Ström, K., & Fagerlund, Å. (2022). Teachers’ experiences with positive education. Cambridge Journal of Education, 00(00), 1–19. 0305764X.2022.2093839

Saputri, I. A., & Nurrahima, A. (2020). Faktor- Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Depresi Anak Usia Sekolah: Kajian Literatur. Holistic Nursing and Health Science, 3(2), 50–58.

Sekarini, A., Hidayah, N., & Hayati, E. N. (2020). Konsep Dasar Flourishing Dalam Psikologi Positif. Psycho Idea, 18(2), 124.

Seligman, M E P. (2011). Flourish: A Visionary New Understanding of Happiness and Well-being. Free Press.

Seligman, M. E.P., Ernst, R. M., Gillham, J., Reivich, K., & Linkins, M. (2009). Positive education: Positive Psychology and Classroom Interventions. Oxford Review of Education, 35(3), 293–311.

Sheldon, K. M., Abad, N., Ferguson, Y., Gunz, A., Houser-Marko, L., Nichols, C. P., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2010). Persistent Pursuit of Need-Satisfying Goals Leads to Increased Happiness: A 6-Month Experimental Longitudinal Study. Motivation and Emotion, 34(1), 39–48.

Skinner, E., Furrer, C., Marchand, G., & Kindermann, T. (2008). Engagement and Disaffection in the Classroom: Part of a Larger Motivational Dynamic? Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(4), 765–781.

Sumardi, K. (2012). Potret Pendidikan Karakter di Pondok Pesantren Salafiah. Jurnal Pendidikan Karakter, II(3), 280–292.

Sun, Y., Tao, F., Hao, J., & Wan, Y. (2010). The Mediating Effects of Stress and Coping on Depression among Adolescents in China. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing : Official Publication of the Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nurses, Inc, 23(3), 173–180.

Vella-Brodrick, D. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2009). Three Ways to be Happy: Pleasure, engagement, and Meaning-Findings from Australian and US Samples. Social Indicators Research, 90(2), 165–179.

Yang, L., Sun, L., Zhang, Z., Sun, Y., Wu, H., & Ye, D. (2014). Internet Addiction, Adolescent Depression, and the Mediating Role of Life Events: Finding from a Sample of Chinese Adolescents. International Journal of Psychology : Journal International de Psychologie, 49(5), 342–347.

Yin, R. K. (2014). Case Study Research Design and Methods (5th ed.). In Sage.

Zarkasyi, H. F. (2020). Imam Zarkasyi ’ S Modernization of Pesantren in Indonesia. Qudus International Journal of Islamic Studies (QIJIS), 8(1), 161–200.

Zhao, Y., Yu, F., Wu, Y., Zeng, G., & Peng, K. (2019). Positive Education Interventions Prevent Depression in Chinese Adolescents. Frontiers in Psychology, 10(JUN), 1–9.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Editorial Office:

Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teacher Training

Jalan A.H. Nasution No. 105, Cibiru

Bandung, Jawa Barat, Indonesia, 40614

Phone: 022- 7802276


 Creative Commons License

Jurnal Pendidikan Islam by is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats