Unveiling the Signature of Halal Leather: A Comparative Study of Surface Morphology, Functional Groups and Thermal Characteristics

Muh Wahyu Syabani(1*), Iswahyuni Iswahyuni(2), Warmiati Warmiati(3), Kutut Aji Prayitno(4), Henny Saraswati(5), Rahmandhika Firdauzha Hary Hernandha(6)

(1) Politeknik ATK Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(2) Politeknik ATK Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(3) Politeknik ATK Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(4) Politeknik ATK Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(5) Universitas Islam Negeri Sultan Maulana Hasanuddin, Indonesia
(6) National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taiwan, Province of China
(*) Corresponding Author


The halal certification of products holds significant importance for Muslim consumers, necessitating the development of reliable techniques for identifying leather products made from raw materials. This study employed rapid and accurate analytical methods to distinguish between cowhide, pigskin, and artificial leather. A combination of scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to assess the variations in collagen fiber structures and thermal stability among the leather samples. The findings revealed that morphological surface analysis, including grain patterns and pores, facilitated swift differentiation between different leather types. Pigskins exhibit three-hole patterns on their morphological surface compared to cowhide, with random pores and tighter grain patterns, whereas artificial leather lacks natural grain patterns and pores altogether. While FTIR spectra exhibited similarities between cowhide and pigskin leathers, variations in vibration intensity enabled effective discrimination. Artificial leather, particularly PVC-based materials, displayed distinct spectra, allowing FTIR spectroscopy to effectively discern between halal and non-halal leather. Cowhide possesses strong and sharp vibration at wavenumber 1736, 1277, and 817 cm-1 compared to pigskin, which has stronger vibration at 1534 cm-1. Meanwhile, PVC-based artificial leather exhibited stretching at 1723 and 744 cm-1 wavenumbers. DSC analysis proved valuable in differentiating between genuine and artificial leather based on unique peaks and thermal behavior. These three techniques provide reliable means to determine the raw material origins of leather products.


DSC; FTIR; halal; leather; SEM

Full Text:



Ambroziak, A., & Kłosowski, P. (2014). Mechanical properties for preliminary design of structures made from PVC coated fabric. Construction and Building Materials, 50, 74–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.08.060

Bañón, E., García, A. N., & Marcilla, A. (2021). Thermogravimetric analysis and Py-GC/MS for discrimination of leather from different animal species and tanning processes. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 159, 105244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2021.105244

Carsote, C., Şendrea, C., Micu, M.-C., Adams, A., & Badea, E. (2021). Micro-DSC, FTIR-ATR and NMR MOUSE study of the dose-dependent effects of gamma irradiation on vegetable-tanned leather: The influence of leather thermal stability. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 189, 109712. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radphyschem.2021.109712

Cucos, A., Budrugeac, P., & Miu, L. (2014). DMA and DSC studies of accelerated aged parchment and vegetable-tanned leather samples. Thermochimica Acta, 583, 86–93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tca.2014.03.022

Duo, Y., Qian, X., Zhao, B., Qian, Y., & Xu, P. (2019). Improving hygiene performance of microfiber synthetic leather base by mixing polyhydroxybutyrate nanofiber. Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, 14, 155892501984251. https://doi.org/10.1177/1558925019842516

Ebsen, J. A., Haase, K., Larsen, R., Sommer, D. V. P., & Brandt, L. Ø. (2019). Identifying archaeological leather – discussing the potential of grain pattern analysis and zooarchaeology by mass spectrometry (ZooMS) through a case study involving medieval shoe parts from Denmark. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 39, 21–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2019.04.008

Fajriati, I., Rosadi, Y., Rosadi, N. N., & Khamidinal, K. (2021). Detection of animal fat mixtures in meatballs using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR Spectroscopy). Indonesian Journal of Halal Research, 3(1), 8–12. https://doi.org/10.15575/ijhar.v3i1.11166

Fathima, N. N., Kumar, M. P., Rao, J. R., & Nair, B. U. (2010). A DSC investigation on the changes in pore structure of skin during leather processing. Thermochimica Acta, 501(1–2), 98–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tca.2010.01.016

Gao, H., Lin, J., Jia, X., Zhao, Y., Wang, S., Bai, H., & Ma, Q. (2021). Real-time authentication of animal species origin of leather products using rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry and chemometric analysis. Talanta, 225, 122069. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2020.122069

Gilon, N., Soyer, M., Redon, M., & Fauvet, P. (2023). Separation of leather, synthetic leather and polymers using handheld laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Sensors, 23(5), 2648. https://doi.org/10.3390/s23052648

Hermanto, S., Rudiana, T., Zein, M. I. H. L., & Wisudawati, A. W. (2022). Methods validation of pork authentication in processed meat products (sausages) through densitometry analysis. Indonesian Journal of Halal Research, 4(1), 35–44. https://doi.org/10.15575/ijhar.v4i1.11892

Hermiyati, I., Silvianti, F., & Sya’bani, M. W. (2017). Vegetable tanning process of starry trigger fish (Abalistes stellaris) and its plotting to leather products. The 7th International Seminar on Tropical Animal Production, 475–484. https://journal.ugm.ac.id/istapproceeding/article/view/29879

Hou, Q., Jin, X., Qiu, Y., Zhou, Z., Zhang, H., Jiang, J., Tian, W., & Zhu, C. (2023). Spectral characterization and identification of natural and regenerated leather based on hyperspectral imaging system. Coatings, 13(2), 450. https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13020450

Izuchi, Y., Takashima, T., & Hatano, N. (2016). Rapid and accurate identification of animal species in natural leather goods by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Mass Spectrometry, 5(1), A0046–A0046. https://doi.org/10.5702/massspectrometry.A0046

Jeyapalina, S., Attenburrow, G. E., & Covington, A. D. (2007). Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) of leather Part 1: Effect of tanning agent on the glass transition temperature of collagen. Journal of the Society of Leather Technologists and Chemists, 91(6), 236. https://www.sltc.org/sltc-electronic-journal/

Jia, P., Hu, L., Yang, X., Zhang, M., Shang, Q., & Zhou, Y. (2017). Internally plasticized PVC materials: Via covalent attachment of aminated tung oil methyl ester. RSC Adv., 7, 30101–30108. https://doi.org/10.1039/C7RA04386D

Kashim, M. I. A. M., Haris, A. A. A., Mutalib, S. Abd., Anuar, N., & Shahimi, S. (2023). Scientific and Islamic perspectives in relation to the halal status of cultured meat. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 30(1), 103501. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2022.103501

Kwak, C., Ventura, J. A., & Tofang-Sazi, K. (2000). A neural network approach for defect identification and classification on leather fabric. Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, 11(5), 485–499. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008974314490

Lim, H., & Hoag, S. W. (2013). Plasticizer effects on physical–mechanical properties of solvent cast Soluplus® films. AAPS PharmSciTech, 14(3), 903–910. https://doi.org/10.1208/s12249-013-9971-z

Liu, Y., Li, Y., Chang, R., Zheng, H., Zhou, Y., Li, M., Hu, Z., & Wang, B. (2016). Species identification of ancient leather objects by the use of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Analytical Methods, 8(42), 7689–7695. https://doi.org/10.1039/C6AY01816E

Ma, Y., Dang, X., & Shan, Z. (2019). Thermal analysis and identification of potential fire-proof energy building material based on artificial leather. Journal of Thermal Science, 28(1), 88–96. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11630-018-1054-8

Maia, I., Santos, J., Abreu, M., Miranda, T., Carneiro, N., & Soares, G. (2017). PVC-based synthetic leather to provide more comfortable and sustainable vehicles. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 254, 122006. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/254/12/122006

Meyer, M., Dietrich, S., Schulz, H., & Mondschein, A. (2021). Comparison of the technical performance of leather, artificial leather, and trendy alternatives. Coatings, 11, 226. https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11020226

Miao, K., Li, X., Yang, D., Xu, Y., Mu, C., Li, D., & Ge, L. (2021). Hydrothermal shrinkage behavior of pigskin. Thermochimica Acta, 699, 178896. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tca.2021.178896

Mirghani, M., Salleh, H., Man, Y. B., & Jaswir, I. (2012). Rapid authentication of leather and leather products. Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 6, 651–660. https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A299062200/AONE?u=anon~5785e1f&sid=googleScholar&xid=1e422373

Onem, E., Yorgancioglu, A., Karavana, H. A., & Yilmaz, O. (2017). Comparison of different tanning agents on the stabilization of collagen via differential scanning calorimetry. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 129(1), 615–622. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-017-6175-x

Pandey, M., Joshi, G. M., Mukherjee, A., & Thomas, P. (2016). Electrical properties and thermal degradation of poly (vinyl chloride)/polyvinylidene fluoride/ZnO polymer nanocomposites. Polymer International, 65(9), 1098–1106. https://doi.org/10.1002/pi.5161

Puică, N. M., Pui, A., & Florescu, M. (2006). FTIR spectroscopy for the analysis of vegetable tanned ancient leather. European Journal of Science and Theology, 2(4), 49–53. http://www.ejst.tuiasi.ro/Files/08/49-53Melniciucetal.pdf

Pullawan, T. (2016). Identification of natural leather and artificial leather products using FT-IR spectroscopy. Bulletin of Applied Sciences, 4(4), 37–43. http://toys.dss.go.th/bas/index.php/bas/article/view/65

Sakmat, J., Lopattananon, N., & Kaesaman, A. (2015). Effect of fiber surface modification on properties of artificial leather from leather fiber filled natural rubber composites. Key Engineering Materials, 659, 378–382. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.659.378

Sebestyén, Z., Badea, E., Carsote, C., Czégény, Z., Szabó, T., Babinszki, B., Bozi, J., & Jakab, E. (2022). Characterization of historical leather bookbindings by various thermal methods (TG/MS, Py-GC/MS, and micro-DSC) and FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 162, 105428. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2021.105428

Syabani, M. W., Amaliyana, I., Hermiyati, I., & Supriyatna, Y. I. (2020). Silica from geothermal waste as reinforcing filler in artificial leather. Key Engineering Materials, 849, 77–83. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.849.78

Syabani, M. W., Amaliyana, I., & Yuniarti. (2022). Pengaruh nilai K-value dan penambahan filler terhadap kualitas kulit sintetis berbasis polivinil klorida. Jurnal Teknologi, 10(1), 36–47. https://doi.org/10.31479/jtek.v10i1.200

Syabani, M. W., Devi, C., Hermiyati, I., & Angkasa, A. D. (2020). The effect of PVC’s resin K-value on the mechanical properties of the artificial leather. Majalah Kulit, Karet, Dan Plastik, 35(2), 75–82. https://doi.org/10.20543/mkkp.v35i2.5639

Tejani, S. (2019). Cow protection, Hindu identity and the politics of hurt in India, c.1890–2019. Emotions: History, Culture, Society, 3(1), 136–157. https://doi.org/10.1163/2208522X-02010042

Tomaszewska, J., Sterzyński, T., Woźniak-Braszak, A., & Banaszak, M. (2021). Review of recent developments of glass transition in PVC nanocomposites. Polymers, 13(24), 4336. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13244336

Valeika, V. (2020). Low-pickle processing of leather: Assessment of leather tanning quality by methods of thermal analysis. Materials Science, 26(3), 333–336. https://doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.26.3.22509

Varghese, A., Jawahar, M., Prince, A. A., & Gandomi, A. H. (2022). Texture analysis on digital microscopic leather images for species identification. 2022 9th International Conference on Soft Computing & Machine Intelligence (ISCMI), 223–227. https://doi.org/10.1109/ISCMI56532.2022.10068472

Vyskočilová, G., Carşote, C., Ševčík, R., & Badea, E. (2022). Burial-induced deterioration in leather: A FTIR-ATR, DSC, TG/DTG, MHT and SEM study. Heritage Science, 10(1), 7. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40494-021-00638-6

Wibowo, R. L., & Syabani, M. W. (2015). Pengaruh pengawetan kulit ikan buntal (Arothon reticularis) terhadap suhu kerut ditinjau melalui analisis differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Majalah Kulit, Karet, dan Plastik, 31(2), 93–98. https://doi.org/10.20543/mkkp.v31i2.507

Witt, T., Mondschein, A., Majschak, J.-P., & Meyer, M. (2021). Heat development at the knife roller during leather shaving. Journal of Leather Science and Engineering, 3(1), 18. https://doi.org/10.1186/s42825-021-00057-0

Yuniastuti, V., & Pratama, A. A. (2023). Portraits and challenges of Indonesia’s modest fashion industry on the halal industry competition in the world. Indonesian Journal of Halal Research, 5(1), 21–29. https://doi.org/10.15575/ijhar.v5i1.17385

Zhang, Y., Chen, Z., Liu, X., Shi, J., Chen, H., & Gong, Y. (2021). SEM, FTIR and DSC investigation of collagen hydrolysate treated degraded leather. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 48, 205–210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2020.11.007

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15575/ijhar.v5i2.25702


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indonesian Journal of Halal Research Indexed By:


Published By:

Halal Center

UIN Sunan Gunung Djati

Gedung Solahuddin Sanusi (Laboratorium Terpadu)

Jl. A.H. Nasution No. 105, Cibiru, Bandung, West Java 40614 - Indonesia 

Creative Commons License
Indonesian Journal of Halal Research by Halal Center UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at https://journal.uinsgd.ac.id/index.php/ijhar.