Exploring Students’ Affective on Using Asynchronous Learning During the Pandemic Period

Yudha Andana Prawira(1*), Vidia Lantari Ayundhari(2), Titim Kurnia(3)

(1) Badan Litbang dan Diklat Kementerian Agama, Indonesia
(2) Balai Diklat Keagamaan Bandung, Indonesia, Indonesia
(3) Dinas Pendidikan Kota Bandung, Indonesia, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


The distance learning can greatly improve student’s cognitive development, but its success in increasing students' affective competence have not been conclusively reported. This study aims to investigate students’ affective aspects, parents, and teacher perspective on islamic religious education using asynchronous learning. Data were collected using questionnaires, interview, and observation. The data were analysed using descriptive analysis. The results show that there was a change on students’ competence in terms of affective religious aspects. Initially 60% students have negative attitudes and decreased to 30% after they had experienced asynchronous distance learning with commitment of learning establishment. The parents in their interview expressed that they were greatly assisted by the commitment of learning their children formed. The asynchronous learning with learning commitment can be considered successful to help students improve their attitudes. This study shows that e-learning accompanied by a learning commitment between student and teachers turns out to be able to give positive results on the part of students' affective on islamic religious education.


Asynchronous Learning; Islamic Religious Education, Learning Commitment, Students' Affective

Full Text:



Abuhammad, S. (2020a). Barriers to distance learning during the COVID-19 outbreak: A qualitative review from parents’ perspective. Heliyon, 6(11), e05482. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05482

Abuhammad, S. (2020b). Heliyon Barriers to distance learning during the COVID-19 outbreak : A qualitative review from parents ’ perspective. Heliyon, 6(August), e05482. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05482

Adams, C. M., & Cross, T. L. (2000). Distance Learning Opportunities for Academically Gifted Students. The Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, XI(2), 88–96.

Allen, M. (2017). Designing Online Asynchronous Information Literacy Instruction Using the ADDIE Model. Distributed Learning. Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-100598-9.00004-0

Amilda, & Wati, N. (2016). Manajemen Kurikulum Pendidikan Agama Islam ( Pai ) Di Sekolah Dasar Islam Terpadu ( Sd It ) Harapan Mulia Palembang. Jurnal of Islamic Education Management, 2(2), 16–30. Retrieved from http://jurnal.radenfatah.ac.id/index.php/El-idare

Arulogun, O. T., Akande, O. N., Akindele, A. T., & Badmus, T. A. (2020). Survey dataset on open and distance learning students’ intention to use social media and emerging technologies for online facilitation. Data in Brief, 31, 105929. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.105929

Asfiati. (2017). Analisis Kurikulum Pendidikan Agama Islam Pra Dan Pasca Undang-Undang Ri. Multidilinear, 4(1), h.6.

Atak, M., & Erturgut, R. (2010). An empirical analysis on the relation between learning organization and organizational commitment. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 3472–3476. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.537

Ayuhana, M. M. (2015). Perkembangan Kurikulum Pendidikan Agama Islam Sekolah Dasar Di Indonesia. Jurnal Tarbawi, 12(2), 171.

Baharun, H., & Maryam, S. (2019). Building character education using three matra of hasan al- banna’s perspective in pesantren, 4(2), 51–62. https://doi.org/10.15575/jpi.v4i2.2422

Baroroh, R. U. (2004). Proses Belajar Mengajar Dan Aplikasinya Dalam Pembelajaran Pendidikan Agama Islam. Uin Kalijaga.

Bloom, B. S., Engelheart, M. D., Furst, E. J., & Et.all. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objecties: Classification of Educatioanal Goals. In Handbook 1 Cognitive Domain (pp. 25–39). Michigan: David McKay Company.

Bower, M., Dalgarno, B., Kennedy, G. E., Lee, M. J. W., & Kenney, J. (2015). Computers & Education Design and implementation factors in blended synchronous learning environments : Outcomes from a cross-case analysis. Computers & Education, 86, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2015.03.006

Cai, Y., & Mehari, Y. (2015). Theory and Method in Higher Education Research Vol. 1. (J. Huisman & M. Tight, Eds.). London, United Kingdom.

Chen, Z., Liao, W., Hua, K., Lu, C., & Yu, W. (2021). Towrds asynchronus federated learning for heterogeneous edge-powered internet if things. Digital Communications and Networks. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcan.2021.04.001

Chertoff, J. D., Zarzour, J. G., Morgan, D. E., Lewis, P. J., Canon, C. L., & Harvey, J. A. (2020). The Early Influence and Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Resident Education and Adaptations. Journal of the American College of Radiology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2020.07.022

Christopher, R., de Tantillo, L., & Watson, J. (2020). Academic caring pedagogy, presence, and Communitas in nursing education during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nursing Outlook, 68(6), 822–829. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.outlook.2020.08.006

Costa, R. D., Souza, G. F., Valentim, R. A. M., & Castro, T. B. (2020). The theory of learning styles applied to distance learning. Cognitive Systems Research, 64, 134–145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogsys.2020.08.004

Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research Design_ Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Method Approaches. Los Angeles: SAGE publications.

Davis, C. R., Grooms, J., Ortega, A., Rubalcaba, J. A., & Vargas, E. (2021). Distance Learning and Parental Mental Health During COVID-19. Educational Researcher, 50(1), 61–64. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X20978806

Dickey, M. D., & Dickey, M. D. (2015). Teaching in 3D : Pedagogical Affordances and Constraints of 3D Virtual Worlds for Synchronous Distance Learning Teaching in 3D : Pedagogical Affordances and Constraints of 3D Virtual Worlds for Synchronous Distance Learning, 7919(September). https://doi.org/10.1080/01587910303047

Ds, L., Jr, L., Tiangco, C. E., Angela, D., Sumalinog, G., Sabarillo, N. S., & Mark, J. (2021). Education for Chemical Engineers An effective blended online teaching and learning strategy during the COVID-19 pandemic. Education for Chemical Engineers, 35(May 2020), 116–131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ece.2021.01.012

Fadillah, E. N. (2017). KETERAMPILAN PROSES SAINS SISWA SMA Development Of Assessment Instruments To Measure The Science Process Skills Of High School Students, 1, 123–134.

Fagel, P. L. (2020). Distance learning frustrations, (November), 66–67. https://doi.org/10.1177/0031721720970708

Gazali, E. (2018). Kendala Pemanfaatan Internet Sebagai Media Pembelajaran Jarak Jauh ( Fenomenologi Komunitas Homeschooling. Pascasaraja Universitas Prof. Dr. Moestopo, V(1), 10–31.

Hackett, R. I. J. (2006). Religion and the Internet. ISSN 0392-1921, 67–76. https://doi.org/10.1177/0392192106069015

Hakim, A. R. (2016). Prestasi belajar matematika ditinjau dari sikap dan komitmen diri peserta didik pada pelajaran matematika. JKPM Universitas Indraprasta PGRI Jakarta, 02(01), 24–36.

Hanaysha, J. (2016). Testing the Effects of Employee Engagement , Work Environment , and Organizational Learning on Organizational Commitment. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 229, 289–297. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.07.139

Hasanah, A., Sri, A., Rahman, A. Y., & Danil, Y. I. (2020). Analisis Aktivitas Belajar Daring Mahasiswa Pada Pandemi COVID-19.

Hidayat, T., Rizal, A. S., Abdussalam, A., & Fawwaz, A. G. (2020). Designing Islamic Values Integration into Sociology Learning. Jurnal Pendidikan Islam, 6(1), 37–56. https://doi.org/10.15575/jpi.v6i1.8119

Holotescu, C., Grosseck, G., & Danciu, E. (2014). Educational digital stories in 140 characters : towards a typology of micro-blog storytelling in academic courses. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, 4301–4305. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.936

Indonesia, R. (2017). Peraturan Presiden Republik Indonesia Nomor 87 Tahun 2017. Jakarta: Sekretariat Negara RI. Retrieved from https://setkab.go.id/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Perpres_Nomor_87_Tahun_2017.pdf

Iswandi, E. A. (1999). Improving Distance Learning of Midwives in Indonesia *. Journal of Health Management.

Kemdikbud RI. (2018). Permendikbud RI Nomor 37 tahun 2018 tentang Kompetensi Inti dan Kompetensi Dasar Pelajaran pada Kurikulum 2013. JDIH Kemendikbud, 2025, 1–527.

Keow, T., Huwaina, S., & Kanokorn, S. (2015). Soft Skills Of Leaders And School Improvement In High Performing Schools. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 191(2011), 2127–2131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.04.652

Khunsoonthornkit, A., & Panjakajornsak, V. (2018). Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences Structural equation model to assess the impact of learning organization and commitment on the performance of research organizations. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences, 39(3), 457–462. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.kjss.2018.07.003

Kruger, O. (2005). Discovering the invisible internet. Heidelberg Journal of Religions on the Internet, 1, 75–76.

Mehri, M., & Uplane, M. (2015). Synchronous and asynchronous e-learning styles and academic performance of e-learners, 176, 129–138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.453

Mendikbud. (2018). 1 . KOMPETENSI INTI DAN KOMPETENSI DASAR Pendidikan Agama Islam SD. In Permendikbud Nomor 37 Tahun 2018 (pp. 1–89).

Mercurio, Z. A. (2015). Affective Commitment as a Core Essence of Organizational Commitment: An Integrative Literature Review. Human Resource Development Review, 14(4), 389–414. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534484315603612

Mignon, A., & Umr, C. (2012). PCCA : A New Approach for Distance Learning from Sparse Pairwise Constraints, 2666–2672.

Moore, J. L., Dickson-deane, C., & Galyen, K. (2011). Internet and Higher Education e-Learning , online learning , and distance learning environments : Are they the same ? The Internet and Higher Education, 14(2), 129–135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2010.10.001

Nasih, A. M., Sultoni, A., Thoriquttyas, T., Yani, A., Ramli, S., & Umar, M. (2020). Applying Participatory Observation In Islamic Education To Improve Students ’ Character. JPI UIN SGD, 6(2), 145–152. https://doi.org/10.15575/jpi.v6i2.9756

Ningsih, S. (2020). Persepsi Mahasiswa Terhadap Pembelajaran Daring - Kajian dan Riset Dalam Teknologi Pembelajaran, 7(2), 124–132. https://doi.org/10.17977/um031v7i22020p124

O’Leary, D. E. (2019). Technology life cycle and data quality: Action and triangulation. Decision Support Systems, 126(May), 113139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dss.2019.113139

Porter, R. L., & Latham, G. P. (2013). The effect of employee learning goals and goal commitment on departmental performance. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 20(1), 62–68. https://doi.org/10.1177/1548051812467208

Pravat Kumar Jena. (2020). Impact Of PandemiC COVID-19 COVID in india. Internasional Journal of Current Research, 12.

Qazi, A., Qazi, J., Naseer, K., Zeeshan, M., Qazi, S., Abayomi-alli, O., … Haruna, K. (2021). Children and Youth Services Review Adaption of distance learning to continue the academic year amid COVID-19 lockdown. Children and Youth Services Review, 126(April), 106038. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2021.106038

Qazi, A., Qazi, J., Naseer, K., Zeeshan, M., Qazi, S., Abayomi-Alli, O., … Haruna, K. (2021). Adaption of distance learning to continue the academic year amid COVID-19 lockdown. Children and Youth Services Review, 126(April), 106038. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2021.106038

Rahmawati, S. D. (2009). Kendala Pelaksanaan Pembelajaran Jarak Jauh Melalui Internet Pada Mahasiswa Pjj S1 Pgsd Universitas Negeri Semarang. Unnes Semarang.

Rosdiana, D. (2013). Pengaruh Kompetensi Guru Dan Komitmen Mengajar Terhadap Efektivitas Proses Pembelajaran Serta Implikasinya Pada Hasil Belajar Siswa Dalam Mata Pelajaran Ekonomi Dian Rosdiana. Jurnal Penelitian LPPM UPI, 2.

Saidi, R. M., Sharip, A. A., Abd Rahim, N. Z., Zulkifli, Z. A., & Md Zain, S. M. (2021). Evaluating Students’ Preferences of Open and Distance Learning (ODL) Tools. Procedia Computer Science, 179(2019), 955–961. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2021.01.085

Saidi, R., Sharip, A. A., Zahirah, N., Rahim, A., Zulkifli, Z. A., & Zain, S. M. (2021). ScienceDirect ScienceDirect Evaluating Students ’ Preferences of Open and Distance Learning Evaluating Students ’ Preferences of Open and Distance Learning ( ODL ) Tools ( ODL ) Tools. Procedia Computer Science, 179(2019), 955–961. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2021.01.085

Schaible, B., Annie, F., Seybold, D., & Calhoun, B. C. (2020). Ecological study of effects of industrial watershed on Müllerian anomalies in an obstetric population. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 202(May), 110819. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.110819

Shahabadi, M. M., & Uplane, M. (2015). Synchronous and Asynchronous e-learning Styles and Academic Performance of e-learners. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 176, 129–138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.453

Soegijapranata, U. (2016). Panduan wawancara. Semarang. Retrieved from https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/80825731.pdf

Soendari, T. (2010). Metode Penelitian Deskriptf.

Sugiyono. (2014). Metode Penelitian Pendidikan, pendekatan kuantitatif. Bandung: Alfabeta. Retrieved from https://www.pdfdrive.com/prof-dr-sugiyono-metode-penelitian-pendidikan-pendekatan-kuantitatif-intro-d56379751.html

Szeto, E. (2014). A comparison of online / face-to-face students ’ and instructor ’ s experiences : Examining blended synchronous learning effects. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, 4250–4254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.926

Tayo, O., Noah, O., Tosin, A., & Alabi, T. (2020). Survey dataset on open and distance learning students ’ intention to use social media and emerging technologies for online facilitation. Data in Brief, 31, 105929. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.105929

Tsipianitis, D., & Groumpos, P. (2018). University asynchronus distance learning programs to enhance interregional sustainable development. IFAC-PapersOnLine, 51(30), 346–351. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifacol.2018.11.329

Vu, C., Hoang, A., & Than, V. (2020). Dataset of Vietnamese teachers ’ perspectives and perceived support during the COVID-19 pandemic, 31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.105788

Zainuddin, A., & Kamaluddin, N. (2012). E xploring Malay Student ’ s Commitment in Online Learning - A Case of Business Management Students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 67(November 2011), 81–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.11.309

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15575/jpi.v7i1.9740


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Editorial Office:

Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teacher Training

Jalan A.H. Nasution No. 105, Cibiru

Bandung, Jawa Barat, Indonesia, 40614

Phone: 022- 7802276

e-mail: journalof.islamiceducation@uinsgd.ac.id

 Creative Commons License

Jurnal Pendidikan Islam by http://journal.uinsgd.ac.id/index.php/jpi is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats