Santri’s Emotional Intelligence and Big Five Personalities on Bullying Behaviors in Pesantren

Putri Oktaviani(1), Achmad Syahid(2*), Peter Paul Moormann(3)

(1) Faculty of Psychology UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta, Indonesia
(2) UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta, Indonesia
(3) Leiden University, The Netherlands, Netherlands
(*) Corresponding Author


The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of two independent variables; emotional intelligence and big five personalities, on the dependent variable, namely the bullying behavior of teenage santri at pesantren (Islamic boarding schools) in West Sumatra. This study used a quantitative approach with multiple regression analysis methods with a significance level of 0.05 or 5%. The sample consisted of 200 santri in pesantren of West Sumatra, taken using a non-probability sampling technique. The data collection instruments used the Wong and Law's Emotional Intelligence Scale, the Big Five Inventory and the Revised Olweus Bullying/Victim Questionnaire (OBVQ). The results of this study indicate that there is a significant influence on emotional intelligence and big five personality toward bullying behavior of santri. Emotional intelligence consist of self-assessment, emotional assessment of others, emotional regulation, emotional use. The big five personality consist of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness. The hypothesis test results show that two minor hypotheses significantly affect the bullying behavior of santri in pesantren, namely the emotional regulation dimension of self-emotional assessment and the agreeableness dimension of the big five personalities.



Big Five Personality; Bullying Behavior; Emotional Intelligence; Pesantren

Full Text:



Afrina, N. A. (2017). Hubungan Kecerdasan Emosional dengan Perilaku Bullying pada Remaja di SMK Muhammadiyah 1 Padang Tahun 2017 [Doctoral dissertation]. Universitas Andalas.

Aldao, A., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Schweizer, S. (2010). Emotion-Regulation Strategies Across Psychopathology: A Meta-Analytic Review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(2), 217–237.

Argayunia, D. (2017). Hubungan Kepribadian Big Five dengan Perilaku Bullying pada Anggota Kepolisian Resor Magelang Kota [Undergraduate Thesis]. UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta.

Bakhshi, Arti, Sharma, & Vasundhra. (2019). Big Five Personality Traits and Social Skills of School Bullies and Victims. International Journal of Health Sciences & Research, 9(1), 223–227.

Bodenhausen, G. V. (1993). Emotions, Arousal, and Stereotypic Judgments: A Heuristic Model of Affect and Stereotyping. In DM Mackie & DL Hamilton (ed.), Affect, Cognition, and Stereotyping: Interactive Processes in Group Perception. Academic Press.

Book, A. S., Volk, A. A., & Hosker, A. (2012). Adolescent Bullying and Personality: An Adaptive Approach. Personality and Individual Differences, 52(2), 218–223.

Boulton, M. J., & Boulton, L. (2017). Modifying Self-Blame, Self-Esteem, and Disclosure Through a Cooperative Cross-Age Teaching Intervention for Bullying among Adolescents. Violence and Victims, 32(4). https://doi: 10.1891/0886-6708.VV-D-15-00075

Boyatzis, R. E., Goleman, D., & Rhee, K. (2000). Clustering Competence in Emotional Intelligence: Insights from the Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI). Handbook of Emotional Intelligence, 99(6), 343–362.

Cervone, D., & Pervin, L. A. (2015). Personality: Theory and Research. Chicago, Illinois: John Wiley & Sons.

Coloroso, B. (2007). Stop Bullying: Memutus Rantai Kekerasan Anak dari Prasekolah hingga SMU. Jakarta: Ikrar Mandiri Abadi.

Cooper, R. K., & Sawaf, A. (1997). Emotional Intelligence in Leadership and Organizations (4th ed.). New York: Grosset/Putnam.

Darmayanti, K. K. H., Kurniawati, F., & Situmorang, D. D. B. (2019). Bullying di Sekolah: Pengertian, Dampak, Pembagian dan Cara Menanggulanginya. PEDAGOGIA, 17(1), 55–66.

Desiree. (2013). Bullying di Pesantren: Studi Deskriptif di Pesantren X Depok [Undergraduate Thesis on Psychology]. FISIP Universitas Indonesia.

Dewinda, Herio, R., & Efrizon. (2018). Hubungan antara Regulasi Emosi dengan Perilaku Bullying pada Santri Kelas XII di Pondok Pesantren Terpadu Serambi Mekkah Padang Panjang. Psyche, XI(1).

Dipenhorst, A. (2014). Big Five Personality and Bullying. Leiden: Tilburg of University.

D.j, W. P., & Indrawati, E. S. (2019). Hubungan antara Kecerdasan Emosional dengan Perilaku Bullying pada Siswa Kelas Xi SMK X Semarang. Jurnal EMPATI, 8(1), 253–259. Retrieved from index.php/empati/article/view /23601

Ekman, P. (2007). Emotions Revealed: Recognizing Faces and Feelings to Improve Communication and Emotional Life. Holt and Co.

Ekman, P., & Davidson, R. J. (1994). The Nature of Emotion: Fundamental Questions. Oxford University Press.

Eysenck, H. J. (1991). Dimensions of Personality: 16, 5 or 3?—Criteria for a Taxonomic Paradigm. Personality and Individual Differences, 12(8), 773–790.

Feist, G. J., & Barron, F. (1996). Emotional Intelligence and Academic Intelligence in Career and Life Success, Annual Convention of the American Psychological Society.

Feist, J., & Feist, G. J. (2006). Theoris of Personality. United States: Mcgraw-Hill.

Fossati, A., Borroni, S., & Maffei, C. (2012). Bullying as a Style of Personal Relating: Personality Characteristics and Interpersonal Aspects of Self-Reports of Bullying Behaviours among Italian Adolescent High School Students. Personality and Mental Health, 6(4), 325–339.

Friedman, Howard S., & Schustack, M. W. (2012). Personality: Classic Theories and Modern Research (5th ed). Pearson Allyn & Bacon.

Friedman, H.S, & Schustack, M. W. (2008). Kepribadian Teori Klasik dan Riset Modern. Jakarta: Erlangga.

Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional Intelligence. Bantum Books. Inc.

Goleman, D. (1998). Working with Emotional Intelligence. Bantum Books. Inc.

Kodžopeljić, J., Smederevac, S., Mitrović, D., Dinić, B., & Čolović, P. (2014). School Bullying in Adolescence and Personality Traits: A Person-Centered Approach. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 29(4), 736–757.

Kokkinos, C. M., & Kipritsi, E. (2012). The Relationship Between Bullying, Victimization, Trait Emotional Intelligence, Self-Efficacy and Empathy among Preadolescents. Social Psychology of Education, 15(1), 41–58.

Larasati, A., & Fitria, M. (2017). Kecenderungan Perilaku Cyerbullying Ditinjau dari Traits dalam Pendekatan Bigfive Personality pada Siswa Sekolah Menengah Atas Negeri di Kota Yogyakarta. Jurnal Psikologi Integratif, 4(2), 161–182.

Lessne, D., & Yanez, C. (2016). Student Reports of Bullying: Results from the 2015 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey. Web Tables. NCES 2017-015. National Center for Education Statistics.

Lukens‐Bull, R. A. (2001). Two Sides of the Same Coin: Modernity and Tradition in Islamic Education in Indonesia. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 32(3), 350–372.

Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1993). The Intelligence of Emotional Intelligence. Intelligence, 17(4), 433–442.

Menesini, E., Camodeca, M., & Nocentini, A. (2010). Bullying among Siblings: The Role of Personality and Relational Variables. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 28(4), 921–939.

Mitsopoulou, E., & Giovazolias, T. (2015). Personality Traits, Empathy and Bullying Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Approach. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 21, 61–72.

Muhaimin, A. G. (2006). The Islamic Traditions of Cirebon: Ibadat and Adat Among Javanese Muslims: Ibadat and Adat Among Javanese Muslims. ANU Press.

Nazari, K., & Emami, M. (2013). Emotional Intelligence: Understanding, Applying, and Measuring (SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 2302304). Social Science Research Network.

Nikoobin, F. (2004). The Relation between Emotional Intelligence with Success and Failure of the Students [M.A. Thesis]. Islamic Azad University.

Nilan, P. (2009). The ‘Spirit of Education’ in Indonesian Pesantren. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 30(2), 219–232.

Nugraha, A. B., Dharmayana, I. W., & Sinthia, R. (2019). Hubungan antara Kecerdasan Emosi dengan Perilaku Bullying. Consilia: Jurnal Ilmiah Bimbingan dan Konseling, 2(1), 66–74.

Olweus, D, & Gredler, G. R. (1993). Bullying at School: What We Know and What We Can Do. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

Olweus, D. (1978). Aggression in the Schools: Bullies and whipping boys. Hemisphere.

Olweus, D. (2005). A Useful Evaluation Design, and Effects of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program. Psychology, Crime & Law, 11(4), 389–402.

O’Moore, A. M., & Hillery, B. (1989). Bullying in Dublin Schools. The Irish Journal of Psychology, 10(3), 426–441.

Ortega, R., Elipe, P., Mora‐Merchán, J. A., Genta, M. L., Brighi, A., Guarini, A., Smith, P. K., Thompson, F., & Tippett, N. (2012). The Emotional Impact of Bullying and Cyberbullying on Victims: A European Cross-National Study. Aggressive Behavior, 38(5), 342–356.

Pallesen, S., Nielsen, M. B., Magerøy, N., Andreassen, C. S., & Einarsen, S. (2017). An Experimental Study on the Attribution of Personality Traits to Bullies and Targets in a Workplace Setting. Frontiers in Psychology, 8.

Pertiwi, C. (2018). Kecenderungan Perilaku Bullying Ditinjau Dari Tipe Kepribadian Big Five [Undergraduate, UIN Raden Intan Lampung].

Rahmawati, S. W. (2016a). Peran Iklim Sekolah terhadap Perundungan. Jurnal Psikologi, 43(2), 167 – 180.

Rahmawati, S. W. (2016b). Hubungan Antara Kecemasan Perpisahan Dengan Orang Tua Terhadap Risiko Perilaku Bullying Santri di Pesantren Assanusi Cirebon [Undergraduate Thesis on Nurse]. Faculty Medical Science and Nursing UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta.

Rigby, K. (2002). New Perspectives on Bullying. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Rigby, K., & Slee, P. T. (1991). Bullying among Australian School Children: Reported Behavior and Attitudes toward Victims. The Journal of Social Psychology, 131(5), 615–627.

Rodkin, P., Espelage, D., & Hanish, L. (2015). A Relational Framework for Understanding Bullying: Developmental Antecedents and Outcomes. American Psychologist, 70(4), 311–321.

Roscoe, J. T. (1975). Fundamental research statistics for the behavioral sciences [by] John T. Roscoe. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. US201300527436

Salovey, P. (2003). Emotional Intelligence: Conceptualization and Measurement. In Blackwell Handbook of Social Psychology: Interpersonal Processes (pp. 279–307). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Schokman, C., Downey, L. A., Lomas, J., Wellham, D., Wheaton, A., Simmons, N., & Stough, C. (2014). Emotional Intelligence, Victimisation, Bullying Behaviours and Attitudes. Learning and Individual Differences, 36, 194–200. j.lindif.2014.10.013

Sistrany, F. (2017). Pengaruh Bullying terhadap Kecedasan Emosi pada Siswa di SMP I Negeri 2 Samarinda. MOTIVASI, 4(1), 75–90.

Sokol, N., Bussey, K., & Rapee, R. M. (2016). The Impact of Victims’ Responses on Teacher Reactions to Bullying. Teaching and Teacher Education, 55, 78–87.

Srimulyani, E. (2012). Women from Traditional Islamic Educational Institutions in Indonesia: Negotiating Public Spaces. Amsterdam University Press. /10.26530/OAPEN_418531

Steiner, C., & Perry, P. (1997). Achieving Emotional Literacy: A Program to Increase Your Emotional Intelligence. Avon. Simon & Shuster Sound Ideas.

Stienen, S. C. E. (2016). Creating a Risk Profile of Bullies in High School: The Relation between the Big Five Personality Traits and Offline and Online Bullying [Bachelor’s Thesis, Psychology]. Tilburg University.

Tani, F., Greenman, P. S., Schneider, B. H., & Fregoso, M. (2003). Bullying and the Big Five: A Study of Childhood Personality and Participant Roles in Bullying Incidents. School Psychology International, 24(2), 131–146.

Ursyiah, H. (2018). Pengaruh Konformitas, Kepribadian Big Five dan Self-Esteem terhadap Perilaku Bullying di Pesantren [Bachelor’s thesis]. UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta Fakultas Psikologi.

Van Geel, M., Goemans, A., Toprak, F., & Vedder, P. (2017). Which Personality Traits Are Related to Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying? A Study with the Big Five, Dark Triad and Sadism. Personality and Individual Differences, 106, 231–235.

Walbridge, L. S. (1998). THE “Santri-Wati” of Indonesia’s “Pesantren”: Orientations of Students of Three Girls’ Religious Schools. Islamic Studies, 37(4), 519–532. Retrieved from

Whitney, I., & Smith, P. K. (1993). A Survey of The Nature and Extent of Bullying in Junior/Middle and Secondary Schools. Educational Research, 35(1), 3–25.

Wijaya, B. A., & Khusnal, E. (2019). Kecerdasan Emosional dan Sikap terhadap Bullying pada Anak Usia Sekolah. JHeS (Journal of Health Studies), 3(2), 28–39.

Woodward, M., Rohmaniyah, I., Amin, A., & Coleman, D. (2010). Muslim Education, Celebrating Islam and Having Fun As Counter-Radicalization Strategies in Indonesia. Perspectives on Terrorism, 4(4), 28–50.

Yani, A. L., & Lestari, R. (2018). Mengalami Bullying di Pesantren: Mengamankan Diri Sendiri Walaupun Tiada Gunanya. Journal of Holistic Nursing Science, 5(1), 49–55.

Zakiyah, E. Z., Humaedi, S., & Santoso, M. B. (2017). Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Remaja dalam Melakukan Bullying. Prosiding Penelitian dan Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat, 4(2).



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Editorial Office:

Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teacher Training

Jalan A.H. Nasution No. 105, Cibiru

Bandung, Jawa Barat, Indonesia, 40614

Phone: 022- 7802276


 Creative Commons License

Jurnal Pendidikan Islam by is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats