Development of Pictorial-based Two-Tier Multiple Choice Misconception Diagnostic Test on Buffer Solutions

Setia Rahmawan, Harry Firman, Wiwi Siswaningsih, Dea Santika Rahayu


This research aims to develop a Pictorial-based Two-Tier Multiple Choice Misconception Diagnostic Test on Buffer Solutions. This research uses the Development and Validation method. The development steps in this method consist of test development (design); validity and reliability test; development of determination key; use of tests, and analysis of results. Based on the content validity test using the Content Validity Ratio (CVR) method, there are 24 items meet the content validity criteria. Based on the reliability test obtained Cronbach's Alpha value of 0.827 which indicates that the developed test is included in the acceptable category. It can identify high school students' misconceptions about the buffer solutions because the presence of pictures can help students understand the problems about the buffer solutions, and can provide an overview of their mental representations so that misconceptions are revealed more deeply.


buffer solutions; diagnostic tests; misconceptions; two-tier multiple choice

Full Text:



Adams, W. K., & Wieman, C. E. (2011). Development and validation of instruments to measure learning of expert-like thinking. International Journal of Science Education, 33(9), 1289–1312.

Adodo, S. O. (2013). Effects of Two-Tier Multiple Choice Diagnostic Assessment Items on Students’ Learning Outcome in Basic Science Technology (BST). Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 2(2), 201–210.

Bayrak, B. K. (2013). Using Two-Tier Test to Identify Primary Students’ Conceptual Understanding and Alternative Conceptions in Acid Base. Mevlana International Journal of Education, 3(2), 19–26.

Benati, A. (2017). The role of input and output tasks in grammar instruction: Theoretical, empirical and pedagogical considerations. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 7(3), 377–396.

Cengiz, T. ysuuml; z. (2009). Development of two-tier diagnostic instrument and assess students’ understanding in chemistry. Scientific Research and Essays, 4(6), 626–631. retrieved from

Chandrasegaran, A. L., Treagust, D. F., & Mocerino, M. (2007). The development of a two-tier multiple-choice diagnostic instrument for evaluating secondary school students’ ability to describe and explain chemical reactions using multiple levels of representation. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 8(3), 293–307.

Chang, R., Chang, R., & Cruickshank, B. (2008). Problem-solving workbook to accompany General chemistry, the essential concepts, fifth edition, Raymond Chang.

Demircioǧlu, G., Ayas, A., & Demircioǧlu, H. (2005). Conceptual change achieved through a new teaching program on acids and bases. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 6(1), 36–51.

Etkina, E., Wenning, C. J., Vesenka, J., & Bryan, J. (2005). J p t e o. 3(2).

Gliem, J. A., & Gliem, R. R. (2003). Calculating, Interpreting, and Reporting Cronbach’s Alpha Reliability Coefficient for Likert-Type Scales. Midwest Research to Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education Calculating, 14(C), 82–88.

Gurel, D. K., Eryilmaz, A., & McDermott, L. C. (2015). A review and comparison of diagnostic instruments to identify students’ misconceptions in science. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 11(5), 989–1008.

Haladyna, T. M., & Rodriguez, M. C. (2013). Developing and validating test items. Developing and Validating Test Items, 1–446.

Johnstone, A. H. (2000). the Practice of Chemistry Education (Invited Contribution*). Chemistry Education: Research And Practice In Europe Educ. Res. Pract. Eur, 1(1), 9–15.

Law, J. F. (2008). Diagnosis Of Student Understanding Of Content Specific Science Areas Using On-Line Two-Tier Diagnostic Tests. Science And Mathematics Education Centre, April, 1–136.

Lawshe, C. H. (1975). a Quantitative Approach To Content Validity. Personnel Psychology, 28(4), 563–575.

Lin, S. W. (2004). Development and application of a two-tier diagnostic test for high school students’ understanding of flowering plant growth and development. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 2(2), 175–199.

Orgill, M. K., & Sutherland, A. (2008). Undergraduate chemistry students’ perceptions of and misconceptions about buffers and buffer problems. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 9(2), 131–143.

Peşman, H., & Eryilmaz, A. (2010). Development of a three-tier test to assess misconceptions about simple electric circuits. Journal of Educational Research, 103(3), 208–222.

Polit, D. F., Beck, C. T., & Owen, S. V. (2007). Focus on Research Methods Is the CVI an Acceptable Indicator of Content Validity? Appraisal and Recommendations. Researchin Nursing & Health, 30, 459–467.

Siswaningsih, W., Firman, H., Zackiyah, & Khoirunnisa. (2017). Development of Two-Tier Diagnostic Test Pictorial-Based for Identifying High School Students Misconceptions on the Mole Concept. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 755(1), 1–8.

Stojanovska, M., M. Petruševski, V., & Šoptrajanov, B. (2017). Study of the Use of the Three Levels of Thinking and Representation. Contributions, Section of Natural, Mathematical and Biotechnical Sciences, 35(1), 37–46.

Surif, J., Ibrahim, N. H., & Mokhtar, M. (2012). Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge in Problem Solving. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 56, 416–425.

Tan, K. C. D., Taber, K. S., Goh, N. K., & Chia, L. S. (2005). The ionisation energy diagnostic instrument: A two-tier multiple-choice instrument to determine high school students’ understanding of ionisation energy. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 6(4), 180–197.

Treagust, D. F. (1988). Development and use of diagnostic tests to evaluate students’ misconceptions in science. International Journal of Science Education, 10(2), 159–169.

Whitten, K. W., Davis, R. E., Peck, M. L., & Stanley, G. G. (2013). Chemistry by Kenneth W. Whitten, Raymond E. Davis, Larry Peck, George G. Stanley ( Chemistry, 803–851. Mary Finch, Lisa Lockwood

Zidny, R., & Eilks, I. (2020). Integrating perspectives from indigenous knowledge and Western science in secondary and higher chemistry learning to contribute to sustainability education. Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy, 16, 100229.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Setia Rahmawan

Journal  Tadris Kimiya Is Indexed By : 

Lisensi Creative Commons

Pendidikan Kimia: Jurnal Tadris Kimiya  dilisensikan dengan Lisensi Internasional Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0Hak cipta dilindungi undang-undangp-ISSN: 2527-6816 | e-ISSN: 2527-9637